Abstracts

1 Arbete, organisation och profession

Kontaktpersoner: Bertil Rolandsson (Bertil.Rolandsson@gu.se), Ylva Ulfsdotter Eriksson (Ylva.Ulfsdotter_Eriksson@socav.gu.se)

Fixed-term contracts, trade union representation and employer-paid training: A Comparative Multilevel Analysis Across 35 European Countries
Maja Adolfsson
Umeå universitet
This thesis examines the moderating role of trade union representation in addressing the gap in employer-provided training between permanent workers and workers with fixed-term contracts (FTCs) from a cross-country, comparative perspective. The impact of trade union representation is measured on two different levels: (1) access to trade union representation at the workplace at the individual-level (2) average trade union representation at the country-level, measured as trade union power. The statistical analyses are performed using data from the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) and multilevel modelling.

Our result suggests that, across the European countries, workers with FTCs receive less employer-paid training than permanent workers. Regarding the impact of trade union representation, statistically significant result is found only at the individual-level, where access to trade union representation increases employer-paid training regardless of employment contract. For the interaction between access to trade union representation at the individual-level and FTC, no significant relationship is found. However, the models with the cross-level interaction between trade union power and FTC indicate that employer-paid training increases for permanent workers only. Our findings suggest that trade union representation at the workplace could operate as an equalizer between permanent workers and FTC workers, while at the country-level, their lobbying effect is beneficial for permanent workers only.

De-centralised work organisations: Lawful sub-contracting and false-staffing in the building sector
Rasmus Ahlstrand
Doktorand, Lunds Universitet
“Recent changes in the way labour is organised in the Swedish construction industry are driven by cost-oriented demands for flexible and innovative labour market solutions from contractors and sub-contractors, resulting in increased outsourcing. Compared to other industries affected by economic globalisation, the construction industry has not moved its production abroad due to the constant need for site-bound labour, through either building construction, renovations or infrastructure projects. Its geographical boundedness cements the industry as central in generating employment opportunities in the Swedish labour market.

Positioned in the field of organisational studies within labour sociology, this study has identified parallel systems of organising flexible forms of labour in the Swedish building sector. I present three models, 1) managed flexibility 2) lawful sub-contracting, and 3) false-staffing, in which labour is organised in accordance to both centralised and de-centralised manners. The transition from a standard employment relationship to a triangular employment relationship is key. It is characterised by a shift in employer responsibilities from contractors to a third party, such as employment agencies, recruitment firms, or sub-contractors. In the centralised system, contractors make use of employment agencies and hire workers mainly to complement a core base of their own labour force. This is the managed flexibility model, in which workers are connected to collective agreements as a result of a compromise in the labour market on the use of temporary workers hired through employment agencies. The two other models, lawful sub-contracting and false-staffing, are found in the de-centralised system. In these, workers are hired through sub-contractors, as contractors outsource their role as employers and effectively limit their own labour force to a minimum. What separates these models are practices of on-site management. Whilst some sub-contractors take responsibility for their own on-site management of their workers (the lawful-subcontracting model), others are hired mainly as cheaper alternatives to employment agencies – leaving on-site management in the hands of the main contractor (false-staffing model).

Based on qualitative interviews and observations from three construction sites, the study suggests that the organisation of labour according to the first of the identified models, managed flexibility, is limited. Rather, it is the other models, characterised by de-centralisation, which are mostly used. It is also suggested that through measures of sub-contracting, there is a social acceptance and normalisation of employment not covered by collective agreements, transforming the labour market in the Swedish building sector. This results in a fragmented labour market, with groups of workers – self-employed and sub-contracted, both domestic and foreign – working alongside each other, on different forms of employment contracts and conditions, and with different employers. The variety of actors involved in the production process clouds responsibilities and shifts risks towards the employees but also to contractors and sub-contractors who absorb quality deficiencies in several manners.”

Utkast till en relationell organisationsteori
Göran Ahrne
Professor emeritus, Stockholms universitet
Det finns fem element eller funktioner som handlar om förutsättningar för att etablera och upprätthålla relationer mellan människor: att urskilja och identifiera vilka som ingår, förväntningar på varandra, beslutsordning: vem som beslutar för vem eller om alla kan vara med och fatta beslut, hur man håller koll på varandra samt hur man uppmuntrar och belönar eller förbjuder och bestraffar varandra.
I organisationer är dessa element föremål för beslut om medlemskap, regler, hierarki, övervakning och sanktioner. Det betyder dock inte att alla relationer i organisationer är beslutade.

I en relationell organisationsteori finns en större plats för människor utan att det handlar om individer. Relationer handlar inte om enskilda individer utan om hur de ska kunna samverka, hur deras handlingar ska kunna sammanfogas. Att tala om människors betydelse i organisationer är inte en ny human relations-teori eller någon sorts organisationspsykologi inte heller en goffmansk tanke om ”the underlife of organizations”, utan att visa att människor är viktiga delar av det som oftast brukar kallas organisationens struktur.
I en formell organisation utgör de kollektiva resurserna organisationens kärna medan människorna och reglerna är utbytbara, men de byts inte ut alla på en gång utan några i taget. Det blir ändå viktigt att undersöka i vilken utsträckning olika individer verkligen är utbytbara och vad som händer när människor byts ut, vilka resurser som försvinner med individerna och vilka som finns kvar.

I teorier om organisation och omgivning finns inte människorna med. Contingency-torin har handlat om teknik, om omgivningen är stabil eller föränderlig och om institutioner men knappast om människor i omgivningen. Syftet med det här papret är att omtolka några av organisationsteorins grundbegrepp i relationella termer.
Webers byråkratiteori är en relationell teori som handlarom samtliga organisationselelement. Men även byråkratins motsats ”adhocracy” kan förstås relationellt t ex genom betydelsen av möten. Många andra av organisationsteorins traditionella begrepp är relationella: hierarki, span of control, zone of indifference, greedy organizations, garbage can decisions etc, liksom teorier om makt i orgnisationer. Drömmen om den sömlösa (zipless) organisationen, t ex lean production, där alla är helt med på noterna och vet precis vad de ska göra och när och hur kan också förstås i relationella termer.”

Making Sense of the Meanings of Paid Work
André Alvinzi
Doktorand, Örebro universitet
In recent years, scholars have addressed the topic of what meaning employees experience in their jobs. Some argue that a large quantity of paid work performed in Western societies is meaningless in terms of its societal contribution. Others claim that for a majority of employees, paid work is in itself a fundamentally meaningless activity. In this context, some studies suggest that large numbers of Swedish and British employees think their jobs are meaningless in terms of their contribution to society. However, the majority of studies examining the meaning of work use a quantitative design and typically neglect deeper understandings of meaning. What is seldom taken into consideration in existing studies are purposive and existential dimensions of meaning. This paper contributes with a nuanced conceptual model for understanding meaning at work. I argue that in order to develop our understandings of meaning in working life and the meaning paid work brings to individuals’ lives, scholars will benefit from including additional concepts of meaning. The paper focuses on current conceptualizations of meaning in relation to work; what is lacking in these concepts; and how existing concepts of meaning can be developed into including existential-sociological and purposive dimensions. Given the link between meaningfulness and employee engagement, health and quality of life, knowledge about deeper meanings of different jobs may be of benefit to society and individuals.

How predictable are lifetime earnings across the lifecycle? An assessment of annual proxies for lifetime earnings across the lifecycle using Swedish registry data
Roujman Shahbazian och Erik Bihagen
Stockholms universitet
Lifetime earnings can be viewed as the ultimate indicator of an individual’s pecuniary success in the labor market. From the perspective of stratification research in sociology it is plausible that occupation and class could predict lifetime earnings well. The idea is that individuals at an early phase of the working life sort into occupations /classes that have substantial differences in wages, typical wage trajectories and are also differently associated with unemployment risks (e.g. Goldthorpe 2000; Goldthorpe and McKnight 2006). For instance, the lifetime earnings for working class, is argued to be lower compared to the service class, because of lower wage growth, smaller opportunities for promotion and higher health risks. In all, it would sum up to large class differences in lifetime earnings.

Recent evidence cast doubt on the idea that class and occupation are strong predictors for lifetime earnings. Kim et.al. (2018) find, based on US-data, that annual class and annual occupation are relatively poor proxies of lifetime earnings compared to annual earnings. Brady et.al. (2018) find a corresponding pattern for the US and Germany in their examination of various proxies for long-term household disposable income. We add to this literature by examining various proxies for individuals’ lifetime earnings, exploiting rich Swedish registry data that cover the whole population, and for a few cohorts born in the 1940s the complete earnings across life. Our main contribution is that we examine the predictive power of different annual proxies across the individuals’ entire working life. We assume that at young ages annual earnings are relatively poor proxies of lifetime earnings while occupation, class and education will be relatively better proxies as they capture the potential for future earnings. Moreover, we expect the predictive power of class and education to stabilize quite early in life and then be roughly equal throughout working life.

Basically, these first expectations are supported: class and education are better predictors than annual earnings in an early phase of working life. However, we do not see stabilization in predictive power for later phases in life and this fluctuation appears to be driven by rather considerable career mobility across classes. An implication of this result is, first, that we should reconsider the idea that class can be used as a valid proxy for lifetime earnings; it is surprisingly weakly associated with lifetime earnings compared to education for instance and its validity clearly varies across the life cycle. Second, if we want to capture to what extent life time earnings are associated across generations we should be aware that this will likely not be captured well by only studying class mobility.

Dementa organisationer: Fallet med polisreformen, särskilt narkotikabekämpningen
Micael Björk
Göteborgs universitet
I fokus för denna text står glömska som organisatoriskt fenomen. Glömska definierad som negativ selektion. Närmare bestämt studeras glömskans skadeverkningar mot bakgrund av regeringens nyfunna intresse för polisens narkotikabekämpning. Analysen kretsar kring det faktum att landets narkotikarotlar stängdes ner i samband med den stora polisreform som sjösattes i januari 2015. Funktionella, kulturella och situationella analyser presenteras inom ramen för en vidare diskussion om glömskans betydelse för statliga byråkratiska (dys)funktioner.

Does Employer Discrimination Contribute to the Subordinate Labor Market Inclusion of Individuals of a Foreign Background?
Moa Bursell
Institutet för framtidsstudier
Advanced labor markets are typically stratified by country of birth, with natives occupying more desirable (high-skilled) positions and immigrants occupying less desirable (low-skilled) positions. Immigrants also run a higher risk than natives to be over-educated in their job. There are many possible reasons for this situation, but the aim of this paper is to investigate whether employer recruitment choices reinforce, counteract or is neutral for these patterns. We know from previous research that there is extensive ethnic labor market discrimination across countries, and that immigrants, their descendants, and other ethnic minorities suffer disproportionally from labor market exclusion. We know much less about how discrimination contributes to the subordinate inclusion of individuals of a foreign background, i.e. the disproportional incorporation of immigrants and low status minorities at the bottom of labor market hierarchies.

We use experimental correspondence audit data derived from 7,111 job applications sent to job openings, where the ‘foreignness’ of the job applicants have been randomly assigned to otherwise equally merited job applications. We find that negative discrimination of job applicants with foreign names is prevalent everywhere, but it is markedly higher in skilled occupations. Furthermore, within occupations, job applicants with foreign names have lower chances of getting a callback if the job advertisements use words signifying competence. We add to previous research by providing clear evidence that not only do employers contribute to ethnic stratification by limiting access to the labor market for individuals with a foreign background, but also by channelling them into low-skilled jobs, contributing to a ‘subordinate inclusion’ of individuals of a foreign background.

Arbetsdelningens återkomst i kommunala välfärdsorganisationer
Daniel Castillo
Södertörn högskola
Begreppet arbetsdelning har de senaste decennierna kommit i skymundan i debatten om det moderna arbetslivet. Den här artikeln syftar till att förnya och utveckla denna diskussion genom att analysera och problematisera införandet av arbetsmarknadsmodeller som har som mål att öka arbetsdelningen inom offentliga organisationer. Artikeln baseras på studier av två kommuners försök att införa ökad arbetsdelning genom anställning av en ny tjänstekategori, serviceassistenter, inom skola, förskola och äldrevård. Studierna visar att det varit svårt att införa en ny arbetsdelning i kommunal verksamhet. Arbetsuppgifterna är ofta så integrerade och sammanvävda att de är svåra att separera och överföra till andra personalgrupper.

She’s a woman and women rule!
Anni Erlandsson
Stockholms universitet
It has been suggested that discriminatory behavior by employers may be one possible reason for observed gender disparities, including motherhood penalties, in career-related outcomes (Blau & Kahn, 2017), and not least so in the Swedish labor market with its extensive rights for parental leave and reduced work hours following parenthood (e.g., Bygren & Gähler, 2012; Gangl & Ziefle, 2009; Mandel & Semyonov, 2006). In order to study discrimination in recruitment and how the (fictitious) recruitment decisions are made, we conducted a laboratory experiment with 230 students studying human relations or economics at Stockholm University, i.e., potential future recruiters.

The purpose of this paper is to study recruitment discrimination on grounds of gender and parenthood, and to examine more closely the potential discriminatory mechanisms. Here, the term discrimination refers to a negative or positive bias in the treatment of job applicants based on their membership in certain categories, i.e., gender and parenthood. We wish to answer the following research questions: are men and women treated differently when applying for a (fictitious) job in a laboratory setting and, if so, does this treatment vary by the parental status of the applicant or by the gender of the respondent? Moreover, what are the underlying mechanisms behind such behavior? Does it matter whether the recruitment decisions are made by the respondents individually or collectively in small groups? Also, does the gender composition of these small groups play a role for the job applicant ratings?

The current study takes place in Sweden and therefore provides a European, i.e., a Nordic and more family-friendly, context in contrast to previous laboratory experiments on the topic (e.g., Correll, Benard & Paik, 2007; Fuegen et al., 2004; Heilman & Okimoto, 2008) that are mainly conducted in the U.S. In contrast to the findings from these U.S.-based studies, the current study shows no motherhood penalty in the job applicant ratings. Yet, the results show a statistically significant gender bias in the ratings in favor of female applicants. This means that female job applicants are more often than male applicants rated as the top candidate for the position, regardless of their parental status. Moreover, while no gender bias in applicant ratings is found among male respondents, there is a statistically significant female-bias in applicant ratings by female respondents, both in ratings made by the respondents individually and collectively by all-female groups.

Changing job quality? Autonomy and employability in different employment regimes 1989-2015
Ingrid Esser
Stockholms universitet
Globalization and technological change is rapidly transforming labour markets, which may impact also employees’ job qualities. As technological change may increase relative demand for skilled labour, this may produce both winners and losers in terms of job quality, raising concern about job polarization. This paper examines the development in perceived autonomy and employability among employees in 1989, 1997, 2005 and 2015 in about 20 countries, applying comparative data from the International Social Survey Program (ISSP) combined with data on institutional and structural features. Specific focus is on assessing the importance of gender, occupation, and union membership for job quality developments in different types of employment regimes.

Theoretically, employees’ resourcefulness is reflected by their occupation as well as by the institutional context, which both carry importance for job quality. In addressing gendered differences in job quality from an employment regime approach, the comparative approach allows for examination of how organizations may respond differently to structural and technological change reflecting countries’ specific institutional settings. Employment regime theory and production regime theory here serve as relevant frameworks for understanding working conditions in different labour markets. In particular, the former, emphasising organized labour and employment policies, have proved useful in explaining cross-country patterns in job quality, such as autonomy (e.g. Gallie, 2007; Esser and Olsen, 2012; Holman and Rafferty, 2018).

Preliminary analyses show that developments in autonomy and employability take distinct forms across countries and occupational groups. Higher risk of deteriorating job quality – autonomy and employability – is seen in low-skilled, female-dominated clerical- and service work as well as in male-dominated plants- and crafts work, as compared to professional workers. However, these changes do not manifest in western continental European countries, where job qualities remain largely stable or improve over time.

Field, capital and habitus in the ’knowledge-based economy’: a Bourdieu-inspired analysis of high-skilled labour immigration
Denis Frank
Göteborgs universitet
There occur a variety of different types of migration to Western Europe. It is common to make a distinction between labour migration, asylum migration and family migration. It is also common to distinguish between regular and irregular migration and between high-skilled and low-skilled migration. The different types of migration tend to give rise to different political responses in destination countries. There might be significant opposition to some types of migration, whereas other types of migration are regarded as legitimate and even desirable. An important example of the latter is the immigration of high-skilled workers, for instance IT-specialists. In Sweden there is a consensus that this type of immigration is desirable. In the public debate there are arguments that the current liberal immigration regulations should be liberalised even further. This contrasts with the debate on other types of migration. For example, the political regulations on asylum migration have been tightened and there are voices calling for further restrictions. There is a debate on the number of low-skilled migrants entering Sweden, which is regarded as too high by some political actors.

The immigration of high-skilled workers is considered crucial for national growth and the continued development of the high-technological economy in Sweden. This migration has a high degree of legitimacy. How has the increased immigration of high-skilled workers received such a strong legitimacy? What distinguishes it from other types of migration? The present paper will seek to identify the specific characteristics in the employment of high-skilled migrants and their position in the labour market. The paper focuses on the immigration of IT-specialists, which has increased significantly. These migrants are often employed in what is termed the ‘knowledge-based’ economy. This sector of the economy began to grow in the 1990s, and the employment of migrants within it has increased since the 2000s.

The paper conducts a Bourdieu-inspired analysis of the employment of migrants in the ‘knowledge-based’ economy, and in particular the sub-sector that is termed the ‘ICT-economy’. The most important concepts in the Bourdieusian theoretical perspective are field, capital and habitus. The main argument is that the emergence of the ‘knowledge-based’ economy has given rise to a specific economic field, which has both general and specific characteristics; it is the latter that distinguishes the field from other economic sub-fields.

Bourdieu investigated several distinct types of fields. The present paper draws heavily on his work on the economic field, although it also deviates from this work in some respects. The Bourdieusian conceptual tool-kit is complemented by concepts from organisational theory. The main actors in economic fields are organisations, in particular firms.

The paper has a dual aim. The first aim is to identify the specific characteristics in the employment of high-skilled migrants and their integration in the labour market. The second aim is to argue for the fruitfulness of a Bourdieu-inspired analysis of high-skilled immigration, but also to discus some of its potential problems. If it can be established that a Bourdieu-inspired analysis is fruitful, and that, for example, the concept of field is suitable for analysing the broader context in which the employment of migrants occur, there is also the potential of a comparative analysis of migrants positions in different economic sub-fields. Such an analysis would show that there are both recurrent and specific processes involved in, for instance, how migrants are recruited, the restrictions they are facing and the strategies they make use of.

The when and whereabouts of gender hiring discrimination
Michael Gähler

Stockholms universitet
The aim of this article is to explore the circumstances leading employers to discriminate by gender and parenthood, contributing to the broader aim at increasing our understanding about the mechanisms underlying gender inequality in the labor market. Previous studies show that employers are about equally likely to hire men and women. These results refer, however, to data based on aggregates of branches, occupations and sectors, and a problem with this is the typically low statistical power when results are broken down by segments. Studies showing no employer discrimination at the aggregate level may thus hide discrimination in certain segments. There are strong theoretical reasons to expect discrimination to vary depending on context, and we will explore this by relating variation in employer discrimination to variation in labor demand, demographic composition, and qualification level in the job applied for. We employ a large-scale experimental correspondence test design, and send non-authentic applications – with gender and parenthood randomly assigned to job applications – to job openings in the labor market, including information on a total of 6,755 job applications in fifteen occupations.

Do collective agreements influence male parental leave take up in Sweden?
Karin Halldén
Stockholms universitet
One of the major reasons for a gendered division of parental leave is the economic compensation during leave. Swedish parental leave benefit provides 77.6 % of earlier earnings, but collective agreements between employer and unions have over time developed to cover the income loss during leave. We focus on the importance of such agreements for fathers’ parental leave take-up. The main division of agreements is between the 1) state, 2) municipality and county and 3) private sector. The difference in agreements for different segments of the labor market is likely to influence parental leave use, especially for parents with income over the ceiling and who would otherwise lose a lot of income while on leave. We examine how parental leave is used from the beginning of the 2000s and a decade later (2000-2012), when agreements are more generous. Our focus will be on men in different sectors and with different income levels, thus differently affected by the change in the agreements.

Preliminary findings indicate differences in leave take-up between fathers’ in different sectors, and it seems that income level is also important. Especially in the private sector a polarization can be seen, where fathers with high income increase their leave use over time while low income fathers fall behind. The study will deepen our understanding of how and whether the level of economic compensation during leave matters for take-up, even in an already generous statutory system.

Den tillfälliga tillhörigheten: Om frivilliga under räddningsinsatser
Roine Johansson
Mittuniversitetet
Den här texten handlar om människors sociala tillhörighet i situationer som inte är helt entydiga, som ligger lite mittemellan. Det är frivillighet under räddningsinsatser i samband med kriser som står i fokus. De kriser det rör sig om är effekter av större händelser som exempelvis skogsbränder, översvämningar och kärnkraftshaverier. Räddningsinsatser kännetecknas ofta av osäkerhet och improvisation samtidigt som de också är strikt formellt organiserade. Det är människors tillhörighet inom ramen för sådana mellanlägen, mellan säkerhet och osäkerhet, mellan det organiserade och det oorganiserade, och mellan improvisation och rutin, som fokuseras i den här texten. Det empiriska underlaget utgörs av intervjuer med frivilliga under den stora skogsbrand som drabbade Västmanland 2014. Alla som ville göra frivilliginsatser under branden fick inte vara med, och av de som faktiskt deltog i insatsen agerade olika typer av frivilliga under väldigt olika villkor. Den viktigaste skiljelinjen gick mellan de frivilliga som var organiserade och de som inte hade någon relevant organisatorisk tillhörighet. För att förstå de olika typerna av tillhörighet måste man skilja mellan den officiella räddningsinsatsen och en mer inofficiell insats. I de olika typerna av räddningsinsats råder olika villkor för inkludering av frivilliga, men i båda insatserna finns restriktioner för inkludering. På så vis används kontroll av tillhörighet som ett sätt att hantera den osäkerhet som kännetecknar alla krishanteringssituationer. De olika slagen av tillhörighet kan förstås inom ramen för två olika slags social ordning, nämligen organisation och nätverk. Utifrån denna ram analyseras de frivilligas tillfälliga tillhörighet inom räddningsinsatsens mellanlägen: Mellan säkerhet och osäkerhet, mellan det organiserade och det oorganiserade och mellan rutin och improvisation.

Expanding the recruiter’s dilemma
Hannes Landén
Uppsala Universitet
In this theoretical chapter of my dissertation on how employers in the pharmacy sector identity and go about to fulfill their needs for labor, I outline three distinct ‘recruiter’s dilemma’. I define these dilemmas as fundamental conceptualizations of what employers do when attempting to fulfill their needs for labor. Each ‘dilemma’ makes assumptions about what kind of world the employer is embedded in and, hence, what kind of problems he or she must cope with. The first dilemma represents a simplified neo-classic market model and proposes that recruiting employers survey the labor market in order to find appropriate human capital. The second dilemma stems from Spence’s (1973) and Arrow’s (1973) conceptualizations of an employer faced with uncertainty with regard to the candidates. I review theoretical and empirical work that have made contributions to this dilemma, but argue that despite theoretical and sociological refinements the dilemma of the recruiting employer’s situation has remained unaltered with regard to how s/he perceive the job to be done. Both scholars inspired by credentialist and cultural capital theory, as well as critical research have aligned with this fundamental conceptualization of the employer. In order to research how employers identify and go about to fulfill their needs for labor, I propose a third dilemma in which the employer not only has to interpret the candidates’ qualities, but also what the job is about and what it takes to do it. In this dilemma employers need to establish equivalence between a job and a candidate, and thus translate (Czarniawska & Joerges 1996, Czarniawska & Sevón 1996) what s/he perceive needs to be done into an offer in the labor market.
(The dissertation relies mostly on qualitative fieldwork of recruitment officers and managers within a company in the pharmacy sector)

Keywords: Recruitment, Hiring, Organizations, Ambiguity, Work

Arbetets organisering – ett kontraktsperspektiv
Fredrik Movitz och Michael Alvin
Uppsala Universitet

Dilemman och diskretion vid professionella krisaktörers interaktioner med frivilliga
Sofia Persson och Sara Uhnoo
Göteborgs universitet
I professionell yrkesutövning ingår att hantera komplexa situationer. Detta paper handlar om dilemman och diskretion vid professionell yrkesutövning, dvs. överväganden för att hantera komplexa situationer vid krishantering, samt logiker och värden som villkorar övervägandena. Dilemman och diskretion är etablerade forskningsteman inom professionsforskning och har belysts inom skilda fält som till exempel utbildning, sjukvård, socialtjänst, polis och rättsväsen. I detta paper behandlas tematiken på ett fält som hitintills sällan har fokuserats i professionssammanhang – krishantering.

De dilemman som fokuseras mer specifikt är sådana som uppstår vid samverkan mellan räddningstjänst och frivilliga vid en krissituation. Teoretiskt och professionssociologiskt är detta intressant då dilemmahantering, diskretion och relationer till medborgare och civilsamhälle är centrala frågor inom professionsfältet. Dessa tematiker ställs på sin spets vid krishantering – viktiga beslut behöver fattas på kort tid gällande komplexa frågor, besluten får stora konsekvenser för människor och natur, samt frivilliga insatser innebär såväl viktiga resurser som belastning vid situationen. Samverkan mellan professionella och frivilliga vid krishantering är också ett fenomen som alltmer kommit att uppmärksammas inom krisforskning och bland praktiker, vilket kan förstås utifrån en internationell tendens av nedskärningar av offentlig sektor och ökat professionellt beroende av frivilliga och företag (tredje sektorn och marknad). Såväl samverkan med medborgare som med företag innebär utmaningar för professionella krishanterare.

Mot bakgrund av ovanstående är syftet med detta paper att belysa professionellas diskretionella överväganden kring dilemman vid samverkan med frivilliga (spontanfrivilliga och företag) utifrån ett specifikt fall, dvs. vid krishanteringen vid en större skogsbrand Sverige (skogsbranden i Västmanland). En analys presenteras av empiriskt material som i huvudsak består av intervjuer med räddningstjänstpersonal som deltog vid insatsen, men analysen bygger även på intervjuer med frivilliga, samt dokument och material från sociala media/FB. Analysen visar att dilemman skilde sig åt beroende på vilken kategori av frivilliga som samverkan gällde, samt att dilemman uppstod vid olika tidpunkter i insatsen: vid involvering/selektion av frivilliga, vid organisation/inkorporering av frivilliga i den offentliga insatsen, samt efter den egentliga krisen hade upphört.

Nyckelord: profession, diskretion, dilemman, frivilliga, krishantering

Swedish pre-school teachers’ role in carrying out curriculum-based gender equality tasks: An ethnographic exploration
Megan Rådesjö
Göteborgs universitet
The National Curriculum for pre-school in Sweden has always been constructed with the intention of carrying out the fundamental values on which society is based, including gender equality. As a result scholars have been interested in how the curriculum is applied and how the societal goals are carried out. However, the resultant body of literature suggests that Swedish pre-school teachers (PST) may not consistently carry out the goals related to gender in the curriculum. For instance, Ärlemalm-Hagsér’s (2010) findings show that PSTs seldom problematize children’s play and learning from a gender perspective. In fact, she finds that gender concepts are very problematic for PSTs because they have different understandings of them and how to use them in practice. Similarly, Svaleryd (2003) notes that although the Swedish PSTs generally believed they were gender neutral in their interaction with the children, the video footage she took often revealed gender specific patterns with girls and boys being approached differently (p. 9). As a consequence of these and similar findings, the Delegation for Equality in Swedish Pre-schools (2004) suggests that instead of countering traditional gender roles and patterns PSTs may instead strengthen them. Resultantly, the broad aim of this doctoral dissertation is to further explore PST’s role in carrying out the gender equality tasks in the new curriculum established in July 2019. To carry out this aim, the results from this study will be presented in three to four scientific articles focusing on specific aspects of this more general aim. Those specific aspects are aims, and questions, are tentatively meant to explore PST’s: 1) practical application 2) theoretical understandings, and 3) occupational role in carrying out the new curriculum. I will depend on Swedish PSTs, who are people educated at the university level to educate and care for children between one and six years old (Arbetsförmedlingen, 2017), to participate in this research. Each of the three papers will be theorized slightly differently depending on the specific research aims and questions, but all will cohere to shared notions related to the occupation of pre-school teaching as being gendered (Acker, 1990) and in such that it is gendered performatively, or accomplished in everyday occupational and organizational life (McDonald, 2016). However, dominant notions of group identity will be challenged and within-group differences will be understood through McDonald’s (2016) concept of intersectionality. The idea of carrying out the curriculum will be understood as a matter of “translating policy to practice” (Czarniawska & Sevon, 1996). Additionally, in line with the ideas that are written into the curriculum, the ways that PSTs construct their knowledge of gender will be understood through queer theory. Specifically, I will use Butler’s (1990) conceptions of the heteronormative matrix, performativity, and discourse. In order to create data, this will be qualitative research and I will depend on an ethnographic approach to perform one-on-one and group interviews, vignettes, and observations. The exact approach and order that will be carried out is still under consideration. Although performing observations first and interviews later feels advantageous as it may prevent PSTs from shaping their behavior around what they said in interviews. I am still considering the methods of analysis too. I have been interested in using thematic analyses, but it has been suggested that I take a look at grounded theory. The expected research outcome is to establish findings that begin to disentangle how Swedish PSTs see themselves in relation to, understand, and act on their gendered understandings in order to start a discussion on, and perhaps even practical steps towards, improving PST’s approach to gendered issues in the future.

Att samverka sig närmare medborgaren – relationell professionalism i praktiken
Bertil Rolandsson
Göteborgs Universitet
Den här studien tar sin utgångspunkt i reformer av offentlig sektor som syftar till att begränsa negativa effekter av New Public Management. Det handlar om att staten ämnar både centralisera styrningen och stärka tjänstemännens inflytande över organiseringen av lokala myndighetspraktiker. Närmare bestämt så utgår studien från den svenska polisreformen och dess uttalade ambition att organisera samverkan som tjänar polisens syfte att vara en myndighet närmare medborgarna. Studien bidrar till tidigare forskning genom att undersöka hur denna samverkan formar det professionella omdöme som poliser tillämpar när de utformar olika typer av lokala polispraktiker, där den uttalade ambitionen är att vara ”närmare medborgarna”. I fokus står hur de värderar sina möjligheter att hantera olika typer av relationer till lokalsamhället och dess innevånare på ett professionellt sätt. Studien omfattar 40 respondenter, varav merparten kommer från polisorganisationen. Respondenter återfinns i lokalpolisområden som hör hemma i storstadsmiljöer, mindre/medelstora städer och landsbygd. Genom att sprida intervjuerna geografiskt omfattar studien en variation av vad en polis ”närmare medborgarna” kan innebära och vilka krav de ställer på ett professionellt polisarbete. För att komma åt kritiska frågor och uppfattningar har även 7 respondenter från olika kommuner intervjuats. I analysen av hur polisen bedömer sina förutsättningar för att hantera lokala relationer utgår studien teoretiskt från Anteby et al. (2015) och deras diskussion om relationell professionalism.

Nyckelord: Post-NPM, Relationell Professionalism, lokala myndigheter, Samverkan, Polisen

Kollektivavtal och institutionell förändring — fallet medarbetaravtal
Lotta Stern
Stockholms universitet, Ratio
Medarbetaravtal debatterades flitigt på 1990-talet som framtidens kollektivavtal. Medarbetaravtal skulle avskaffa den uppdelningen mellan arbetare och tjänstemän och ge samma villkor för alla på företaget. Det sågs av många arbetsgivare som framtidens kollektivavtal. Sedan föll det mer eller mindre i glömska. I studien används förekommande medarbetaravtal på svensk arbetsmarknad som exempel på en institutionell innovation. Genom intervjuer med parter som tecknat centrala och lokala medarbetaravtal ges insikter kring den svenska arbetsmarknadsmodellens viktigaste beståndsdel — kollektivavtalet — och dess förnyelsepotential. Dessa diskuteras utifrån teoretiska perspektiv kring institutionell förnyelse och tröghet.

The ‘active society’ trickling down? Ethnographic observations from local level policy implementation
Jon Sunnerfjell
Göteborgs Universitet
The ‘active turn’ of welfare have entailed reforms seeking to mitigate passive dependence on solidarity by means of labour market participation. Increasingly, this plays out at the local level. In Sweden, recent changes in labour policy have reinforced this trend towards ‘the local’ whereby individuals positioned far from the labour market increasingly become subjected to municipal activation programs instead of state employment services via the Public Employment Service. Drawing on ethnographic observations conducted inside an activation initiative organised in a rural Swedish post-industrial municipality, it is illustrated how frustration at the managerial level resulted from the fact that loyalty and interdependencies in relation to institutions and actors in the community had to be balanced with the decree of fostering ‘active’ and employable citizens. In light of this ‘moral multiplexity’, Boltanski and Thévenot’s ‘orders of worth’ framework is used to carve out two competing modalities of worth wielded interchangeably by the management of the activation initiative.

How job structural change affects marginal group employment: the role of recessions
Michael Tåhlin
Stockholms universitet
In Sweden and many other countries, young people and immigrants are facing increasing difficulties in finding employment. We suggest that the decline in employment prospects for marginal groups to a significant extent can be explained by the structural change of skill. This structural change has two interrelated components, skill upgrading and skill mismatch, that are commonly treated separately and incompletely. Our main hypothesis is that the upward shift in the skill structure of labor markets – the growing shares of jobs with high skill requirements and workers with high education – has made crossing the border into employment more demanding and might thus have affected youth and recent immigrants more than others.
This hypothesis has not been systematically evaluated in earlier research. In two recent papers (Tåhlin and Westerman 2018, Szulkin, Tåhlin and Westerman 2019) – focusing on youth and immigrants, respectively – we contribute to filling this gap. A third paper, outlined below, examines how the long-term evolution of marginal group employment is linked to cyclical economic change, and in particular to recessions. We base our empirical analyses on data from 33 OECD countries for the period 1970 to 2018.
The impact of long-term structural change may be lie dormant for extended stretches of time, yet reveal itself in dramatic form during times of crisis or exuberance. A decline of job hirings precedes a rise in job separations as general labor demand weakens; economic downturns therefore initially hurt labor market entrants – such as youth and recent immigrants – more than others. In addition, employment cuts in downturns tend to be larger for low-skill than high-skill jobs, further weakening relative employment chances for marginal groups. In the proposed paper we test this hypothesis of interaction effects between skill change and cyclical economic fluctuations.
Our empirical model will capture these dynamics by explicitly linking indicators of skill change to effects of cyclical shifts on youth and immigrant employment. Indicators of structural change will be retrieved from the Structural Analysis (STAN) database compiled by the OECD, with data going back (for some countries) to 1970. This database contains information on productivity in different sectors, indicating skill change at the industry level. Indicators of educational attainment in the population, also from the OECD database, will be used in order to measure educational expansion (rising skill supply).
In our two previous papers we analyzed employment rates for youth/immigrants through panel regressions at the country level, which will be an important method also in the current study. However, the complexity of effect estimation in our new paper requires a more detailed analysis. We thus complement the panel regressions with cross-sectional analyses, with recessions nested within countries as the unit of observation. A cross-sectional model can easily incorporate lagged and cumulative effects of skill change, e.g. shifts during a boom not taking effect until a subsequent recession, or the accumulated growth of different economic sectors since the last crisis occurred. Our compilation of data on almost 100 recessions in close to all economically advanced countries from 1970 to recent years will make this analysis both comparatively and statistically useful. These data will also bring opportunities of providing novel descriptive accounts of the role of recessions in the evolution of labor market inequality.

References
Tåhlin, M. and J. Westerman (2018) “Youth employment decline and the structural change of skill.” European Societies, https://doi.org/10.1080/14616696.2018.1552981
Szulkin, R., M. Tåhlin and J. Westerman (2019) “Skill structure and labor market integration of immigrants in Europe.” Working paper, Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI), Stockholm University.

(Im)mobilitet som kapital – utbildning och arbete i en mindre industriort
Hanna Uddbäck
Göteborgs universitet
Syftet med detta paper är att undersöka hur unga vuxna använder (im)mobilitet som kapital på arbetsmarknaden i en mindre industriort. I den studerade orten är utbildningnivån låg och kommunen satsar på att få fler unga att utbilda sig. Hinder på vägen anses vara invånarnas orörlighet, för att kunna studera på högskola krävs pendling eller flytt. Det teoretiska ramverket utgår från en förståelse av mobilitet som kapital utifrån begreppet ”motility” som betonar mobilitetens sociala och geografiska karaktär. I begreppet ingår inte bara faktiskt mobilitet utan också en potential att vara mobil och den kontext där mobiliteten sker (Kaufmann et al 2004). Det empiriska materialet kommer från mitt pågående avhandlingsprojekt där jag genomfört intervjuer med unga vuxna, uppvuxna och vid tiden för intervjun bosatta i den mindre orten. Resultaten visar att de unga vuxna upplever ökade krav på utbildning både lokalt och nationellt men är samtidigt osäkra på utbildningens värde på den lokala arbetsmarknaden. Mobilitet är en kapitalform de unga vuxna har ojämlik tillgång till, där avsaknad av tillgång får konsekvenser i form av färre utbildningsmöjligheter. Att utbilda sig på annan ort innebär dock ofta fortsatta krav på mobilitet då lokala karriärmöjligheter för högutbildade saknas. Mobilitet är därmed en komplex kapitalform för unga vuxna i mindre orter. Mitt resultat visar också att immobilitet kan användas som kapital på arbetsmarknaden i relation till en diskurs om rörlighet och brist på utbildad arbetskraft. Genom att koppla ihop ett utbildningssociologiskt perspektiv med frågor om (im)mobilitet, klass och arbete vill jag här lyfta fram en fördjupad förståelse för hur utbildning värderas och används på arbetsmarknaden i en mindre industriort.

Disasters as business opportunities – influences of market logic on disaster management of a Swedish wildfire
Sara Uhnoo
Göteborgs universitet

Crisis and disasters entail rapidly changed societal and economic conditions. In this article we analyse disasters as market opportunities in which interactions and rescue efforts are thoroughly influenced by market principles such as competition, profit maximizing and economic growth. Tierney (2015) has questioned a ’neoliberal disaster risk reduction’ and a naive confidence in ‘community resilience’ (e.g. public-private partnerships), claiming that down-sizing of state control and responsibilities give uncontrolled and free space for market interests with implications such as ’major cost overruns, mismanagement, corruption and profiteering, as well as a loss of transparency and accountability’ (p. 1338). Aligned with this, the concept of ‘disaster entrepreneurship’ has been adopted to describe ‘attempts by the private sector to create or maintain value during and in the immediate aftermath of a natural disaster by taking advantage of business opportunities and providing goods and services required by community stakeholders’ (Linneluecke & McNight 2015: 167).

Drawing on such critical research on ‘disaster capitalism’, we aim to deepen the understanding of neoliberal influences on disaster or crisis management in a Nordic context. Based on interviews with official disaster responders and volunteers, key documents and social media data, we present an empirical study of a Swedish disaster situation, the wildfire in raging in the province of Västmanland during the exceptionally hot and dry summer of 2014. The wildfire became the largest in four decades and caused substantial damage; e.g. approximately 14,000 hectares (the size of 20,000 football/soccer pitches) were burned and the total cost of the fire was estimated to be at least 100 million euros. To contextualise our Swedish case study, we take departure in studies on the Swedish crisis management system (Engberg & Wimelius 2016; Rådestad & Larsson 2018). While Rådestad & Larsson (2018) focus on policy development of the Swedish crisis and security management system during the last decades, our contribution is to give concrete empirical examples of neoliberal influences on the mangement of a Swedish disaster; in particular, how this influenced resuce efforts and interactions between professional disaster responders and volunteers (including private companies) and the implications thereof.

Variations in perceptions of occupational prestige?
Ylva Ulfsdotter Eriksson och Erika Nordlander
Göteborgs universitet
Occupational prestige has been claimed to be “the only universal sociologist has discovered” (Hout and DiPrete 2006: 3) since previous research has shown great stability in the hierarchical order of occupations. Treiman’s meta-analysis of about 80 studies from 60 different countries, conducted from the mid-1940s to the mid-1970s, also showed that “On the average, people in all walks of life, rich and poor, educated and ignorant, urban and rural, male and female, view the prestige hierarchy in the same way” (Treiman 1977:59). This unity of perception is explained by “collective conscience”, and shared norms and values in society about what that is regarded as prestigious and worthy. In previous research on occupational prestige in Sweden, similar results were found – and with minor exceptions, the respondents shared perceptions of occupational prestige (Ulfsdotter Eriksson, 2006).

However, a recurring topic in the (media) debate is increased polarization in opinions, which is also at the core of the analysis from the latest report from the SOM-institute (SOM, 2019). The polarization of opinions concerns e.g. migration, climate change, and gender equality. Another current discussion concerns the restructuring of the labor market and whether it is upgrading (with increased employment in high-skilled occupations) or polarizing (with an increase in both low- and high-skilled occupations). Against this background, it follows that also that perceptions of occupational prestige may have been affected and fragmented the “collective conscience”.

Thus, this paper aims to explore stability and variation in perceptions of occupational prestige. The study draws on survey data collected 2002 and 2018, and deals with the following questions: Has polarization affected perceptions of occupational prestige and how are perceptions of occupational prestige distributed with regard to social class, gender, ethnicity, and age?

The empowered gigger: A micro perspective
Linda Weidenstedt
Stockholms Universitet, Ratio
Research on the so-called gig economy, where people organize their work by looking for single work tasks on digital platforms, is increasingly gaining attention. In Sweden, research on gig workers has so far primarily been published by politically invested organizations, creating rather polarizing results that fuel the equally polarized public debate. The aim of this study is to gain more in-depth knowledge by looking at the phenomenon from the perspective of “”gig workers”” through a sociological and micro-level oriented lens. The main research focus concerns the question in how far gig workers experience their work situation as empowering. Results will hopefully contribute to a broader approach towards gig work.

In August 2018, LO argued that the gig economy risks creating a new lower class. One month later, Svenska Dagbladet emphasized that the gig economy offers a flexible working life that contributes with stimulation and variation. With the digital development accelerating certain labor market phenomena, scientists and politicians alike are interested in what these phenomena mean for the labor market and its involved parties. However, apart from this common interest, analyses and opinions differ greatly.

For instance, employer and employee organizations, as well as politicians and scientists disagree on the gig economy’s short- and long-term effects. Partly, this disagreement may be due to the fact that some platforms are mentioned more than others in the debates: Platforms that provide qualified jobs, such as Gigger, Upwork, or Freelancer, are not mentioned as frequently as those that provide unqualified jobs such as Uber, Foodora, Tiptapp or the like.
Not least this division into qualified and unqualified gig jobs leads to a situation where some emphasize flexibility, independence and change—thereby focusing on skilled jobs; while others emphasize marginalization and exploitation—focusing on unqualified jobs. Even within the latter group, opinions differ: Some believe these unqualified gig jobs are a chance for the otherwise unemployed, while others see a danger that these individuals will be locked into an insecure labor market consisting of insecure and poorly paid jobs.
What these perspectives have in common is their focus on macro-outcomes as well as socially and politically relevant implications of these outcomes, such as the potential creation of a new lower class vs. the creation of a new entrepreneurial freedom. While international research on the gig economy is increasing, academic research looking particularly at the gig phenomenon in Sweden from the giggers’ point of view is so far harder to find.

Therefore, we are currently in the process of conducting semi-structured interviews with individuals who work as giggers in Sweden—both in qualified and unqualified jobs. Our research focus is the question in how far these individuals feel structurally and psychologically empowered. The reason for the choice of this concept as theoretical framework is the by research established correlation between empowerment and other relevant concepts such as job satisfaction, well-being, and motivation. These concepts have a significant impact on individuals—notwithstanding the possibility of a different outcome of gig work on the macro level.

We hope to contribute to the debate by presenting insights into individuals’ evaluations of their job situations as giggers and how they describe their circumstances in terms of empowerment. Although macro-level outcomes are undoubtedly relevant and important features of labor market change, so are micro-level insights about individuals’ motives, motivations, and well-being.

How job structural change affects marginal group employment: the role of recessions
Johan Westerman
Stockholms Universitet
In Sweden and many other countries, young people and immigrants are facing increasing difficulties in finding employment. We suggest that the decline in employment prospects for marginal groups to a significant extent can be explained by the structural change of skill. This structural change has two interrelated components, skill upgrading and skill mismatch, that are commonly treated separately and incompletely. Our main hypothesis is that the upward shift in the skill structure of labor markets – the growing shares of jobs with high skill requirements and workers with high education – has made crossing the border into employment more demanding and might thus have affected youth and recent immigrants more than others.
This hypothesis has not been systematically evaluated in earlier research. In two recent papers (Tåhlin and Westerman 2018, Szulkin, Tåhlin and Westerman 2019) – focusing on youth and immigrants, respectively – we contribute to filling this gap. A third paper, outlined below, examines how the long-term evolution of marginal group employment is linked to cyclical economic change, and in particular to recessions. We base our empirical analyses on data from 33 OECD countries for the period 1970 to 2018.
The impact of long-term structural change may be lie dormant for extended stretches of time, yet reveal itself in dramatic form during times of crisis or exuberance. A decline of job hirings precedes a rise in job separations as general labor demand weakens; economic downturns therefore initially hurt labor market entrants – such as youth and recent immigrants – more than others. In addition, employment cuts in downturns tend to be larger for low-skill than high-skill jobs, further weakening relative employment chances for marginal groups. In the proposed paper we test this hypothesis of interaction effects between skill change and cyclical economic fluctuations.
Our empirical model will capture these dynamics by explicitly linking indicators of skill change to effects of cyclical shifts on youth and immigrant employment. Indicators of structural change will be retrieved from the Structural Analysis (STAN) database compiled by the OECD, with data going back (for some countries) to 1970. This database contains information on productivity in different sectors, indicating skill change at the industry level. Indicators of educational attainment in the population, also from the OECD database, will be used in order to measure educational expansion (rising skill supply).
In our two previous papers we analyzed employment rates for youth/immigrants through panel regressions at the country level, which will be an important method also in the current study. However, the complexity of effect estimation in our new paper requires a more detailed analysis. We thus complement the panel regressions with cross-sectional analyses, with recessions nested within countries as the unit of observation. A cross-sectional model can easily incorporate lagged and cumulative effects of skill change, e.g. shifts during a boom not taking effect until a subsequent recession, or the accumulated growth of different economic sectors since the last crisis occurred. Our compilation of data on almost 100 recessions in close to all economically advanced countries from 1970 to recent years will make this analysis both comparatively and statistically useful. These data will also bring opportunities of providing novel descriptive accounts of the role of recessions in the evolution of labor market inequality.

References
Tåhlin, M. and J. Westerman (2018) “Youth employment decline and the structural change of skill.” European Societies, https://doi.org/10.1080/14616696.2018.1552981
Szulkin, R., M. Tåhlin and J. Westerman (2019) “Skill structure and labor market integration of immigrants in Europe.” Working paper, Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI), Stockholm University.

Organisationskultur och normer – om vad som definierar ett gott utfört arbete inom AF och FK (*m. K. Jacobsson, Ylva Wallinder)
Katarina Hollertz
Göterborgs universitet

Stability and Change in occupational prestige (*m. Ulfsdotter Eriksson, Y)
Erica Nordlander
Göterborgs universitet

2 Barn och ungdom

Kontaktpersoner: David Cardell (david.cardell@buv.su.se), Elias le Grand (elias.legrand@buv.su.se), Lucas Gottzen (lucas.gottzen@buv.su.se)

What friends? On the characterization of friends and friendships
Olov Aronson
Högskolan i Jönköping
Friendships are at the center of adolescents’ personal social lives, yet they are complex and multifaceted relationships, involving both solidarity and hierarchy. Friendships can contribute to the wellbeing and social opportunities of adolescents and society, but the exact processes, meanings, and implications of friendship depend on the nature of the friendships under consideration and on the attributes of the peers involved. The present study provides an assessment of the characterizations of friends and friendships and of the methods for capturing elaborate characterizations in research on friendship formation. The study focuses on research performed on adolescent immigrants, but the findings are likely to be of relevance to other populations and contexts. Systematic searches, screening, and selection of articles yielded 24 studies that were included in a thematic synthesis. The findings indicated that elaborate characterizations of friends and friendships could suggest explanations, generalizations, and implications of friendships that were not identified in research with less elaborate characterizations. Both qualitative and quantitative studies could provide more and less elaborate characterizations of friends and friendships, accounting for varying degrees of agency and interaction. The findings are discussed from the perspectives of intersectionality and interactionism, and methodological suggestions for continued research are made.

Kritiska studier av barn och barndom
David Cardell
Stockholms universitet
Under det senaste decenniet har det i forskning med fokus på barn och unga lyfts behov av mer kritiska ansatser och perspektiv. Med detta agendasättande följer ifrågasättande av tidigare och nuvarande strukturer för forskning liksom teoretiskt etablerade begrepp (inklusive ”barn” och ”aktörskap”). Ambitioner om kritiska studier som handlar om barn, barndom liksom unga och ungdom inbegriper också aktivistisk forskning som söker möjligheter till förändring. Till detta adderas återkommande argument för reflexivitet, om att forskning inbegriper politiska dimensioner, normativitet samt att som forskare verka för och med barn och unga.

I flera publikationer skrivs sociologi och andra vetenskapliga discipliner fram som resurser, vilka ger möjligheter till kritisk forskning. Samtidigt och i kontrast till detta framförs också att discipliner och disciplinärt tänkande kan utgöra ett problem; med betoning till hur tvärvetenskapliga ansatser och perspektiv liksom kombinationer av metodologier ger särskilt relevanta möjligheter och kunskapsbidrag. Det finns således skilda idéer om hur kunskap och praktik bäst förenas inom ramen för studier av unga människor, samt vilka teorier och institutionella ramar som kritiska studier bör inbegripa och vända sig mot.
Vad det kritiska består i är sällan föremål för längre resonemang eller någon omfattande problematisering, trots att det i senare tids forskningspublikationer inom nämnda område pekas på behov av en mer kritisk analys samt av kritiska barndomsstudier (se t.ex. Alanen, 2011; Spyrou, 2019; Spyrou, Rosen & Cook, 2019). Utifrån en kontrasterande bild av olika agendor inom detta område utvecklas ett resonemang om vad som kan känneteckna eller utgöra det ”kritiska”.

Vad är det ”kritiska” inom ramen för studier av barn och barndom? Samt hur är det möjligt att förstå aktuella agendor för det kritiska inom nämnda forskningsområde? I linje med de sätt på vilka Aspers och Cortes (2019) undersöker vad som är ”kvalitativt” i kvalitativ forskning är den här aktuella undersökningen inriktad på frågor om det kritiska inom nämnda område. Denna fråga undersöks med fokus på senaste decenniets forskning som behandlar unga människor utifrån en (explicit) kritisk ansats.

De svar som skisseras till den första frågan innefattar en spännvidd mellan olika teorier med varierande kritiska anspråk jämte en utbredd oklarhet gällande begrepp. Det är med andra ord inte tydligt eller givet vad som utgör det kritiska i studier av barn och barndom; konsensus kring det kritiska saknas, liksom dialoger kring vad det kritiska kan innebära. Till den andra frågeställningen: om forskare och ”ordinary members of society” (Honneth, 2009/2018) verkar och lever i en tid där kritik värderas på skiftande sätt samt kommer med ett löftets skimmer bör det kritiska förstås utifrån förändring liksom upprätthållande av system. Kritik som ”verktyg” inbegriper således skilda alternativ; reifikation jämte kritisk potential till förändring. Forskning om barn och barndom ses här därmed i relation till en ordning där det kritiska på olika sätt och utifrån olika intressen görs till något eftersträvansvärt. I diskussionen som behandlar den andra frågeställningen blir samtida bidrag från sociologi, filosofi samt kritisk teori resurser för att positionsbestämma centrala publikationers anspråk inom studier av barn och barndom.

Mobilitet, rumslighet och barns agens i (förståelsen av) samtida barndomar
Tanja Joelsson
Stockholms universitet

I den här presentationen argumenterar vi för att teorier om mobilitet och rumslighet kan utveckla vår syn på barns och ungdomars agens. I linje med forskning som bedrivs inom det ”nya mobilitetsparadigmet” ses mobilitet som grundläggande i det samtida samhället och i människors vardagsliv. Urry (2007, 44) hävdar t.ex. att mobilitet rekonstruerar det sociala, och att en sådan förståelse av mobilitet och det sociala med nödvändighet omvandlar det sätt varpå samhällsvetenskapen producerar kunskap. Mobilitet kan inte bara läggas till ”statiska” eller ”strukturella” analyser, utan kräver ett paradigmskifte i hur sociala fenomen undersöks. Mobilitet är på så vis fundamentalt integrerad i den sociala strukturen, både som en effekt och som en del av dess konstitution. Mobilitet är en ‘achievement of a multitude of human-environment interfaces’ (Cresswell, 2009, s. 260) – en imploderad knut där olika relationer och materialiteter sammanstrålar eller divergerar. Detta har konsekvenser för studiet av barn och ungdomar och för begreppsliggörandet av barns och ungas agens. Vi förstår barns och ungas agens inte bara som något som individuella barn och ungdomar besitter, utan som något som skapas i rörelse och i relation till den sociala och materiella omgivningen. En syn på mobilitet och agens som relationella framhäver även vikten av att studera hur barns och ungas agens påverkar och påverkas av det som sker på olika geografiska skalnivåer, där olika slags skiktningsprocesser och maktordningar är väsentliga att förhålla sig till.

Struggling with difference and developing significant attachments in Sweden
Charlotte Melander och Oksana Shmulyar Gréen
Göteborgs universitet
The main objective of this paper is to discuss the emerging conceptualisation of the processes through which children and young people, due to their own mobility, retain existing family, kin and wider social ties and transform them into the meaningful social relationships between people and places post-migration. Drawing from our previous research on the Polish and Romanian migrant workers and their families in Sweden (Shmulyar Gréen&Melander 2018; Melander&Shmulyar Gréen; Melander&Shmulyar Gréen&Höjer 2019), the focus of our ongoing research project are children who are themselves newly arrived migrants from Poland and Romania. These are two Central European countries that since accession to the EU have the highest registered outflows of the mobile labour workers to the EU as a whole, and to Sweden in particular (Friberg&Eldring 2013). The current project actively engages with children’s own voices and perspectives on reunification with their families in Sweden and creation of affective bonds locally and transnationally, embedded in their own experiences of separation from parents and other kin, their own migration and negotiations of belonging post-migration.
The starting theoretical point of our study stems from the new social studies of childhood (e.g., James & Jenks & Prout 1998), shifting the focus from children being perceived as vulnerable and dependent, to recognising them as social actors able to speak for themselves and actively shape their own lives and the lives of others. Related to this ontological assumption on agentic childhoods is an understanding that children are more than just recipients of care provided by adults (e.g. Pantea 2012), rather they are capable to actively co-create caring relationships and share their own practices and experiences of building meaningful relationships.

In the paper we analyse interviews, network maps and life lines with the young migrants focusing on how they talk about their social relationships developed within the formal social arenas and institutions in Sweden, including Swedish secondary and high schools, classes for mother tongue language , and the places of worship and religious education. Three questions are specifically addressed: 1) How are the significant relationships in three different social arenas for socialisation shaped according to the children? 2) What kind of social support do the children receive from the people they designate as ‘significant others’, including teachers, religious leaders and peers? 3) How can we conceptualise the building of significant relationships within these professional arenas?

One of the central concepts helping us to make sense of the children’s own agency in the processes of adaptation and integration in Sweden is the notion of ‘care worlds of children’ developed by Lynch et al (2009). This notion links together the relationships of love, care and solidarity, which according to Lynch et al (2009:38) constitute an affective domain of human life, vital in order “to establish a basic sense of importance, value and belonging, a sense of being appreciated, wanted and cared about”.
Another concept we are going to apply to our analysis is ‘transnational transitions’ developed in Pustulka and Trabka (2019). Transnational transitions for migrant children in our study entail multiple changes and shifts aligned with the life course, including the initial parental migration, children’s own migration and transition to adulthood in a new country. Children and young people in the study all move to Sweden when they are in school age, thus schooling becomes one of the most important formal sites for their socialisation, outside of the family settings. Along with other researchers (Slany&Strzemecka 2016) we observe that in schools, where young migrants spend most of their time they may face isolation, peer pressure, bulling, as well as building new friendships and support networks. To handle these complex experiences and develop resilient responses to them young migrants seek acceptance and belonging in other social sites for socialisation, where their native languages and a sense of familiarity help them to become vocal about their needs, rights and feelings.

Ett platskänsligt perspektiv på upplevd tillhörighet hos ungdomar
Carolin Valizadeh
Linnéuniversitetet 
Mitt avhandlingsprojekt tar sin utgångspunkt i unga människors upplevelser och erfarenheter av att vara bosatta i en svensk förort. Tidigare studier visar att förortens ungas invånare ofta uttrycker upplevelser av tillhörighet till området och en vilja att ta platsen i försvar (Andersson 2003, Lalander 2011, Lundström 2007, Sernhede 2007). Det saknas dock utvecklade resonemang om hur platstillhörigheten uppstår och vidmakthålls. Jag visar i min studie hur tillhörighet [belonging] till ett bostadsområde uppstår och utvecklas hos unga människor i utkanten av en svensk storstad. Tillhörighet förstås i detta sammanhang som en process i vilken människor bedömer hur väl de själva passar in i en given miljö (Kusenbach, forthcoming). Dessa kognitiva och känslomässiga tolkningar grundar sig i och konstrueras parallellt med andra livserfarenheter och identiteter (ibid). Studier av plats och relationen mellan människor och platser är vanliga inom discipliner som geografi, arkitektur och filosofi. Sociologiska studier har länge ansetts ignorera betydelsen av relationen mellan människor och platser, och platsen har istället använts som en inramning, bakgrund eller kontext för någonting annat som har varit i fokus för den sociologiska uppmärksamheten (Bell 1997; Gieryn, 2000). Istället för att ses som en kontext, bör platsen förstås som en aktör; en kraft med påtagliga konsekvenser för det sociala livet, skriver Thomas Gieryn i artikeln ”A Space for Place in Sociology” (2000). Ett ”platskänsligt” perspektiv likt det Gieryn (2000) förespråkar, där social handling förstås med hänsyn till vart den är placerad (emplaced), saknas i stor utsträckning inom det forskningsfält som intresserar sig för ungas erfarenheter av att vara bosatta i segregerade, fattiga, eller på annat sätt utsatta, miljöer. I detta paper presenteras preliminära analyser som berör de ungas upplevda tillhörighet till ett bostadsområde. Min teoretiska utgångspunkt är ett platskänsligt perspektiv som förstår de ungas tillhörighet som en process som uppstår i mötet mellan ungdomarna och platsen. Det empiriska materialet består av fältobservationer som utförts tillsammans med min hund vid ett 30-tal tillfällen, gruppintervjuer med totalt fyrtio ungdomar mellan femton och tjugofem år samt go-alongs som innebär att grupper av ungdomar visar mig runt i området.

Perceptions of masculinities, feminities and gender equality among young migrants in Berlin
Katarzyna Wojnicka

Göteborgs universitet
The aim of this paper is to investigate and analyze attitudes and perceptions of young men and women with migration background with regard to masculinities and femininities definitions, gender roles and gender equality. Basing on qualitative research methods such as: a) focus groups interviews (n=4); b) individual in-depth interviews (n=28); c) visual sociology – I will seek a representative understanding of the gender-related attitudes of young men and women with migration background. I argue that they are pivotal, but under-researched, social category in the studies on the nexus of (transnational) migration, integration and gender research. Investigating such issues is especially crucial in the context of current (public) debates where young migrant men are increasingly posed as problematic and violent, performing ‘dangerous foreign masculinity (Scheibelhoffer 2017) and in many cases as persons lacking an appropriate (European) system of values with regard to intimate and gender relations in particular as well as gender equality in general. The paper will use data collected in 2019 among young (16-29) 1st and 2nd generation migrants living in Berlin, Germany. The research team focused on exploring issues of intimate relationships, gender relations and gender equality perceptions, with a special attention to religion – motivated attitudes. The sampling criteria were determined by the research goals and an intersectional approach (Collins & Bilge 2016). Informed by this approach, our intention was to choose a heterogeneous sample of research participants in terms of class, country of (family) origin, religious/ethnic background, type of sexuality and age. Participants were recruited with the assistance of local migration centers and offices as well as through local Non- Governmental Organizations (NGOs) working with these populations.

3 Sociologisk teori

Signifikant symbol som pregnant begrepp – en precisering, operationalisering och aktualisering
Lars-Erik Berg
Högskolan i Skövde

G. H. Mead is mostly known for his theory of the socially created Self, the personal identity of humans. This is nowadays not a revolutionary thesis, although the theory is sometimes recently attacked, or even ignored, from neuroscience, advancing a biological, and thus inidividualistic, alternative theory. However, Meads more basic contribution is much broader than the Self. It concerns the capacity to lift intelligence up to a conscious, reflective level. It is not only functional as in varying ways among all living creatures, it is also existential, i.e. conscious of its own place in the universe. This goes far beyond many observations of partially rational behavior among many species. It also goes beyond the narrow conception that many interpreters make of Mead as clinging steadily to spoken human language as the main advance of human intelligence. The argumentation must go back to the concept of “vocal gesture”, which is Meads own important concept. But these gestures have some specific traits in common with other gestures, those influencing sender in the same way as the receiver. My aim is to specify and make possible to operationalize such gestures, in order to analyze the difference between different forms of intelligence and sensitivity, made possible by different forms of social influences among animals and man. Neuro science often seems to disregard such differences, thus grossly overloading some of the recently studied brain reactions in human and other species. The same neuro science that makes this overload also is creative in finding that not only the brain creates its environment, but also the reverse process is true. Social interaction creates much of the developed human brain, making intelligence conscious and thus existential, by a reflective capacity that is specific to social intelligence.

The way thus is open to expand the searching for significant symbols and consciousness among other species than the human. This has been done by many modern ethologists.
The concept “significant symbol” is basic in G. H. Meads social psychology; symbols are presuppositions for development of conscious rational intelligence, in our species as in the individual, and thus basic for human psychology. But the concept is subject to diffuseness in Mead himself, and misinterpretations among many of his followers. My aim is making a concrete definition of the concept, developed from the variables similarity – difference and closeness – distance, applied to the dimensions of space and time. These variables and dimensions are necessary for symbols and rational intelligence to develop. The process is dependent on gestures that influence sender and receiver in similar ways, i.e. they are social in origin. Thus: elementary concrete sociality develops symbolic sociality and conscious and reflective intelligence, given the mentioned variables and dimensions.
Consequences for forming human relations in a society dominated by e.g. digitalization and medicalization of socially important deviance forms are heavy. These new forms of sociality should have a heavy impact on reforming human intelligence, given some truth in the meadian theory. It is urgent to study these processes from the standpoints that my basic analysis of the symbol indicate.
Key concepts: vocal gesture, significant symbol, similarity/difference, closeness/distance, space/time, conscious thought, reflection.

Struktur, handling och en relationell sociologi
Göran Ahrne
Stockholms universitet

Förutom mikro och makro talas det ofta om en meso-nivå av samhället. Men var går gränserna mellan dessa nivåer? I detta paper görs först en granskning av vad några typiska mikro- och makrobegrepp som handling, livsvärld, struktur, system och samhälle, egentligen står för; vilken samhällelig verklighet de avspeglar. Detta görs i en jämförelse med några typiska meso-begrepp som nätverk, institution och organisation. Resultaten av dessa jämförelser leder över till en diskussion av den relationella sociologi som utvecklats under de senaste decennierna. Den relationella sociologin kan dock kritiseras för att abstrahera begreppet relation och för att ensidigt lyfta fram begreppet nätverk. Därför kan Max Webers relationsbegrepp tjäna som en alternativ utgångspunkt för en relationell sociologi.

Simmel och de grundläggande sociologiska problemen
Magnus Karlsson
Lunds universitet
Följande presentation kommer allmänt att behandla Georg Simmels sociologi och mer specifikt försöka utveckla en förståelse för hur människan på olika sätt tillhör samhället. Historiskt har man ofta menat att samhället är ett system som hålls samman genom samarbete eller genom ett beskyddande organ som håller människor i schack och skyddar dem mot sin annars okontrollerbara frihet; som bäst en konstgjord fördelningsapparat, som sämst en maktordning som de rika använder för att suga ut de fattiga. Så resonerade t.ex. Hobbes som i sin statslära menade att människors grunddrift var självbevarelsedriften som i sitt naturtillstånd skulle innebära allas krig mot alla. För att bevara självbevarelsen sammansluter man sig därför till en gemenskap och överlåter sin makt till staten. Så har även många efter Hobbes tänkt sig att samhället konstruerats för att egoistiska människor inte skall göra livet otrevligt för varandra. Så resonerade individualismens förespråkare på 1700-talet när de klargjorde att människan var född fri och jämlik, som om de gjorde inträde i samhället baserat på egen vilja, redan rustade med uppfattningar om rätt och fel och en tydlig bild av maktfördelningen i samhället. Tankarna har hos vissa överlevt både 1800-talet och 1900-talet. Bakom ett sådant tankesätt ligger emellertid ett falskt antagande. Och det är att människor kan existera som människor utan samhället. Människor blir inte först individ och sedan medlemmar av samhället. Det är bara samhället som kan föda individen. Människor är inte ”födda fria”. Det är bara i samhället man kan uppnå frihet. Vi kan bara tillfredsställa vår natur i och genom samhället. Varje individ är inte bara ett resultat av sociala relationer, utan han eller hon blir sig själv, en individ, i ständigt pågående sociala relationer. Som vuxna beslutar vi kanske mer om oss själva, men vi blir aldrig mer oberoende av sociala relationer än vi är som nyfödda. Därmed har vi emellertid bara börjat uttrycka den djupa relationen mellan individen och samhället som manifesterar i Simmels sociologi.

The Constructive Conflict Staircase
Elizabeth Olsson
Göteborgs universitet
The conflict literature is well-populated with theories of destructive conflict escalation. As a result, we know how conflicts proceed from the recognition of problematic social contradictions to the development of adversarial attitudes to behaviors of mutual destruction. What we do not know is how conflicts progress in reverse. This theoretical gap raises questions such as, how is constructive conflict accomplished? What does it entail? How are conflicts transformed from potentially destructive interactions into opportunities for social development? I address these questions through the presentation the Constructive Conflict Staircase, an abductive contribution to sociological theory. This model is based on the extensive observational study of inter-personal conflicts inside of classrooms and is theoretically inspired by the work of Glasl (1999). In the model, I describe conflict progression (rather than escalation) and the nine steps that it entails. Like Glasl, I also describe thresholds, but in my model these are thresholds of cooperation, collaboration, and integration. The purpose of this model is both to extend theoretical understandings of constructive conflict enactment and to help conflict actors and mediators (better) capitalize on the positive potentials of conflict situations.

Working the self: Truth-telling and subjectivity in twelve stepping
Fredrik Palm
Uppsala universitet
In this article I interrogate twelve step practice within Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) from the perspective of Foucault’s later work on governance, veridiction and subjectivity. Recent critical studies of addiction tend to view self-help cultures like that of AA and other twelve step programs as integral parts of contemporary power/knowledge complexes, and thus as agents of the modern “will to knowledge” that orients most of Foucault’s work. In line with the widespread Foucauldian critique of governmentality, addiction self-help culture is thus conceived as one that primarily reproduces abstract, neoliberal norms on health and subjectivity. The argument put forward in this article aims to upset this framework attending to a number of features of twelve step practice that, I argue, bear striking resemblances to Foucault’s later discussions of ethics, care of self and truth-telling. In particular, I suggest that a close study of AA practices of work on the self, spirituality and truth-telling, interrupts hegemonic assumptions about power and subjectivity in contemporary Foucauldian critique.

Academic ignorance
Sverre Wide
Örebro universitet
Few things could be less controversial than stating that the central tasks of the modern university involves teaching and research. True, the precis and proper nature of these activities is sometimes debated, and the university might very well have other responsibilities too. But few would oppose the idea of the university as an important – perhaps the most important – institution for finding out new and transferring to the younger and coming generations new and not so new knowledge. And not only should it host and support teachers and researchers; according to a common and influential understanding of the university, as stated in the Magna charta universitatum for example, is it important that teaching and research is closely connected. But how should this this connection be understood? And why do most of us hold it to be valid ideal even in a time of “massified” higher education? This paper takes an action theoretical approach to answering these questions, hoping thereby also to contribute to the sociological theory of teaching.

On the Universality Paradigm in the History of the Haitian Revolution. Three Modes of Abstraction and Six Critical Theses
Carl Wilén
Göteborgs universitet
In 1804, former slaves and their allies in the most profit-generating French colony Saint-Domingue declared independence from France and the abolishment of slavery, as a result of the 12 years long struggle that has become known as the Haitian Revolution. In the wake of an ongoing “goldrusch” and “turn” to the Haitian Revolution, scholars have observed and criticised the emergence of what might be called a “universality paradigm” in the reception of the events between 1791–1804. The universality paradigm underlines how black slaves accomplished a rupture between l’ancien régime and freedom from slavery, how they realised the truncated universal ideals of the French Revolution and the enlightenment, how they challenged the exclusion not only of themselves but of each and every marginalised social group, and how they contributed to modern conceptions of human rights and democracy.

However, in view of the apparent hegemony of the universality paradigm and the emphasis on inclusion and realisation in the contemporary assessment of the slave revolution, a growing number of scholars have proposed a focus on continuity instead of rupture, authoritarianism instead of modern ideas of freedom, contingency instead of progressivist narratives, and nationalism, self-determination, autonomy and forced labour instead of universal rights.

By implication, considering the growing number of critical objections about the focus on rights, inclusion and universal emancipation in the Haitian Revolution, it is questionable whether the notion of a “universality paradigm”, seen as an answer to a tacit register of present-day problems, actually reveal more than it disguises about the general judgements about the Haitian Revolution presently on offer. Instead, a more accurate diagnose of the scholarly literature is that we have witnessed an increasing gap between what I will call a “universality-analysis”, more or less bent on romanticism, and a number of “universality-sceptical” responses, which means that the Haitian Revolution has become involved in a “universality-conflict”.

The aim of the present article is not only to substantiate the claim that a diagnosis of the reception of the Haitian Revolution since the influential diagnoses of it as a silenced past by Michel-Rolph Trouillot in 1995 in terms of a universality-conflict is accurate, but also to offer a critical assessment of the conflict and its implications.

Even if some have begun to identify the existence of a universality-analysis, as yet no one has treated the reception of the Haitian Revolution during the last three decades in terms of a universality-conflict, involving at least two parties of interpretation. Thus, the aim implies that a historico-theoretical (in contrast to empirical) contribution to the historiography of the Haitian Revolution will be one of the results of the article. Such a contribution is crucial since the notion of a hegemonic universality paradigm shape’s the point of departure of theoretical as well as empirical studies involving the Haitian Revolution. It will be presented in the form of six critical theses about the reception as a whole.

Moreover, the devices chosen for the critical assessment of the universality-conflict will be rooted in an argument for the centrality of abstractions and in an elaboration of three specific modes of abstraction – abstractions of extension, generality, and vantage point – for analyses of moving objects of investigation, such as revolution and social change. Therefore, the article can also contribute to a broader field of knowledge production, not least to the study of revolutions and social change.

Ideologikritik – en introduktion (Studentlitteratur, planerad utgivning våren 2021). Evelina Johansson Wilén, Tomas Wedin och Carl Wilén (red.)
Carl Wilén
Göteborgs universitet
I efterhand är det många som har noterat att ideologibegreppet drabbades av ett besynnerligt öde i sviterna av de ekonomiska kriserna under 1970-talet. Den aggressiva politiska och ideologiska offensiv mot ekonomisk jämlikhet och omfördelning, fackliga organisationer och arbetsrättslig lagstiftning, kollektiva skyddsnät och reglering av låne- och finansmarknad, som satte stopp för rekordårens märkliga kombination av höga vinster, ökande reallöner och låg arbetslöshet, samsades med en storskalig akademisk attack mot ideologibegreppet. Just när behovet av ideologikritik var som störst förvisades ideologibegreppet till det samhällsteoretiska samtalets periferi.

Som alternativ presenterades ofta en eller en form av diskursanalys som en kvalitativ metod som kunde hjälpa studenten och forskaren att undvika vad som uppfattades som ett illa dolt upplysningstänkande kombinerat med en stelbent uppdelning mellan bas och överbyggnad. I bästa fall sågs ideologibegreppet som oväsentligt och föråldrat; i värsta fall som missledande och våldsamt. Om och om igen brännmärktes ideologitermen för sina ”cartesianska dualismer” och ”binära oppositioner”.

Idag tycks denna diagnos emellertid bara vara giltig till hälften. I kölvattnet av finanskrisen 2007–2008 – den ”långa depression” som ännu inte släppt oss ur sitt grepp – och alla de sociala rörelser och partier från vänster till höger, över stora delar av jorden, som har givit sig i kast med att formulera ett alternativ till (eller blott utnyttjat effekterna av) skenande ekonomisk ojämlikhet, korruption, egendomskoncentration och finanskapitalets anarki talas det till och med om en ”ny ideologikritik” och om en ”ideologikritisk vändning”.

Om vi förflyttar blicken till litteraturlistorna inom de mer samhällstillvända delarna av humaniora och samhällsvetenskap och till den svenska läroboksfloran inom kvalitativ metod passar tyvärr båda sidorna av iakttagelsen av hur attacken mot ideologibegreppet sammanföll med en ideologisk offensiv mot arbetarrörelsen alltjämt som hand i handske. Alltjämnt saknas en bok på svenska om ideologikritik metod och teori.

Syftet med antologin är att bryta denna tystnad för att studenter inom humaniora och samhällsvetenskap återigen ska kunna få upp ögonen för den ideologikritiska traditionens rikedom, djup och användbarhet. Vad vi däremot inte önskar är att antologin ska läsas som ett försök att bemöta de diskursteoretiska avfärdanden som riktats mot ideologibegreppet med samma avfärdande logik. Inte heller vill vi imitera det sätt på vilket ideologikritiken av diskursteorins olika företrädare utan kvalifikationer har avvisats som föråldrat. Det vore inte bara intellektuellt ohederligt att nu försöka utnyttja förebuden om att de akademiska trenderna på idéernas andrahandsmarknad ser ut att lämna diskursanalysen bakom sig. Att använda sig av samma framstegsberättelse, med vilken ideologikritiken en gång undergrävdes, för att nu beskriva diskursanalysen som gammalmodig och ideologikritiken som det enda aktuella alternativet riskerar dessutom att göra konkreta analyser av konkreta samhälleliga förhållanden ytligare.

Det argument som vi kommer att försvara är istället att det är fullt möjligt att kombinera ideologikritik och diskursanalys. Men vi kommer även att argumentera för att de mest inflytelserika diskursbegreppen utesluter viktiga dimensioner av ideologikritik, samtidigt som det omvända inte gäller.

Underlaget som kommer att distribueras inför teorigruppens seminarium består av två delar: dels det inledande kapitlet och dels det avslutande teoriutvecklande kapitlet, båda författade av Evelina Johansson Wilén, Tomas Wedin och Carl Wilén

4 Bruk av olika substanser/Socialpsykologi/Rättssociologi

Kontaktpersoner: Nina_katri Gustafsson (nina-katri.gustafsson@sociology.su.se), Tove Sohlberg (tove.sohlberg@sociology.su.se), Reza Banakar (reza.banakar@soclaw.lu.se), Emma Engdahl (emma.engdahl@gu.se)

Nordic alcohol policy at the crossroads. Separate courses in Finnish and Swedish alcohol regulation?
Jenny Cisneros Örnberg
Stockholms universitet
Introduction: The Nordic countries have a long common history when it comes to alcohol regulation. After Finland and Sweden entered the EU a similar trend continued regarding increased alcohol availability, increase of total consumption and similar reactions by producing national action plans and programs. However, during the last few years the two countries seem to differ considerably in their views and handling of alcohol on the political arena. The aim of this paper is to compare the alcohol policy developments in Finland and Sweden between 2012 and 2019, analyzing the differences and commonalities and suggest reasons for the development and future headings.
Methods: The paper draws on methods of qualitative text analysis of political documents such as proposed bills and official reports to consider the ongoing political debate on how to regulate alcohol in the two countries.
Results: Despite historically similar systems, the analysis shows an increasing discrepancy between the countries’ political debate and alcohol policy initiatives. Finland has worked out a proposal for a new Alcohol law with several liberalizing elements. Proponents have focused on employment, less bureaucracy and consumer’s freedom. In Sweden alcohol policy has received less political attention, but several investigations have been appointed to make proposals for new legislation suggesting a strong political support for the preservation of the retail monopoly.
Conclusion: If the difference between the countries in both legislation and attitudes will last, it will most likely in the future be reflected by increasing differences in consumption and levels of harm between the countries.

Regulation in the name of what? -the case of e-cigarettes in Sweden 
Tove Sohlberg
Stockholms universitet

Effects of increased physical availability of alcohol on alcohol-related harms on migrants and other population groups: A natural experiment in two phases after increased opening hours
Nina-Katri Gustafsson
Stockholms universitet
The Swedish alcohol retail monopoly Systembolaget AB has a strong position in Sweden since they provide the major amount of alcohol consumed in Sweden. The physical availability, restricted by opening hours and numbers of alcohol retail stores, are therefore crucial for volumes of alcohol consumed in Sweden, and furthermore on alcohol-related harms. Several earlier studies have investigated whether alcohol consumption and/or alcohol-related harms increased or decreased as availability and/or price changed on alcohol. Of specific importance for this study are the studies investigating the closing and opening of Systembolaget stores on Saturdays and their effects on rates of violence, vandalizing, drunkenness and drunk-driving.

From earlier studies of changes in availability, we also know that not all population groups are effected the same way. High consumers are more likely to increase their alcohol consumption when availability increase than are low consumers, which is sometimes also reflected in the alcohol-related harms. Thus, population groups known to drink more, i.e. men and younger individuals, are more at risk to increase their consumption when alcohol availability becomes less restricted.

As the number of migrants increase in Sweden, division by migration history and ethnic background becomes increasingly important. It is well known that alcohol consumption varies by drinking culture, which refers both to reasons for consuming alcohol, in what context/situation alcohol is consumed, how much alcohol is consumed at each occasion and how often people drink. It can e.g. be expected that Finnish and Polish migrants drink more, and that people from Middle Eastern countries drink less. When availability changes, their propensities to increase consumption are expected to be very different from each other, given their earlier consumption levels.

In this study the impact of opening up Systembolaget stores on Saturdays in two phases on the number of alcohol-related hospitalizations and mortality will be investigated. The first change took place in an experimental area (comprised of Stockholm, Scania, and four counties in northern Sweden) February 2000. Changes in hospitalizations and mortality rates will be compared between the experimental area and the control site (Värmland, Örebro, Västmanland, Östergötland, Kalmar, Jönköping, and Västra Götaland), assumed to be unaffected by these changes. In July 2001, the change was implemented in the whole country. These changes will furthermore be studied in relation to different migrant background, gender, age and educational level.

It is hypothesized that increases in acute harms, such as accidents and alcohol-poisonings, will be observed in the experimental area after the first change but that other harms might increase in all areas after the second change. We also expect e.g. Finns and other migrant groups with tendencies for higher consumption as well as men and younger persons, to increase their harms more than other population groups.”

Personlig assistans – ett flexibelt yrke med lydnadsplikt
Eva Schömer
Högskolan Kristianstad

Artikelns övergripande syfte är att mot bakgrund av en intersektionell förståelseram belysa hur kommuner och övriga utförare väljer att agera i gränslandet mellan arbetsmiljörätt och socialrätt och analysera vilka praktiska konsekvenser det här kan få för de som arbetar i annans hem under prekära anställningsförhållanden. Syftet är sålunda att bidra till förståelser om vad lydnadsplikt och arbetsskyldighet innebär för personer vid arbete i annans hem i form av personlig assistans. Utgångspunkten är tagen från arbetstagarperspektiv.

Grunden för anställningen inom personlig assistans är brukarens behov. Behoven artikuleras i s.k. genomförandeplaner. Det händer emellanåt att genomförandeplanerna inte är tillgängliga för assistenterna. I de fallen aktualiseras anställningsavtalen och den skriftliga informationen, som arbetsgivare är skyldiga att upprätta (6 c § LAS). Om även dessa handlingar briser, aktualiseras utlysningstexten för anställningen. De texterna innehåller vanligtvis skrivningar om att assistenten ska vara flexibel, lyhörd, ansvarfull, att personkemin ska stämma samt att assistenterna förväntas komma med förslag på lösningar, men det är alltid brukaren som har det sista ordet

Assistansreformen genomfördes år 1994 i syfte att ge människor med betydande och långvariga funktionsnedsättningar möjlighet att leva ett liv som andra för att få möjlighet att bli delaktiga i samhället. Reformen utgjorde i det närmsta en revolution för de, som tidigare hade levt på institutioner, eller varit beroende av sina anhörigas möjligheter att hjälpa dem. Med argument som att ”leva ett liv som andra” skapas också en framtidstro för alla de, som tidigare inte hade möjlighet att få vara en del av samhället. Att den personliga assistenten ska vara brukarens ”armar och ben, händer och fötter”, är detsamma som att assistenten ska vara följsam. Begrepp som brukare bör undvikas till förmån för ”arbetsledare” (se till exempel Janson 2005). Valet av assistans bör också vara fritt (Prop. 1992/93:159, sid. 67). Det bör eftersträvas att assistenterna förstår sin roll som ”följsam”, genom att den som arbetar inom yrket förutsätts kunna acceptera och respektera arbetsledarens auktoritet (Gough & Modig 1995, s. 22f). Det här kan i det närmsta ses som ”självklarheter” från ett brukarperspektiv. Att brukarnas rättigheter stärks, innebär emellertid att assistenternas rättigheter minskar. Arbetsrättsliga rättigheter, som har tillkämpats under lång tid.

Från ett arbetsmiljörättsligt perspektiv ska den anställde bland annat ha rätt till delaktighet och inflytande över sin arbetssituation och arbetsmiljö. Den anställde ska ha möjlighet att kunna överblicka sina framtida arbetsuppgifter; det ska vara möjligt att planera sin arbetsdag. Arbetsgivaren och arbetstagaren ska samverka för att åstadkomma en god arbetsmiljö (3:1a AML). Men, om arbetsgivaren inte är närvarande, och genomförandeplanerna inte är tillgängliga (eller kanske otydligt skrivna), blir möjligheten till inflytande och planering i stort sett obefintlig. Att assistansen utförs i brukarens hem gör att gränsen mellan den privat sfären (hemmet) och offentlig sfären (offentliga arbetsplatsen) luckras upp. Maktförskjutningen från beroende brukare till självständig individ skapar den omvända situationen för arbetstagarna. Genom att ansöka om anställning som personlig assistent, förväntas den anställde göra avkall på flera rättigheter som arbetstagare har i tillskansat sig under de senaste drygt 100 åren. En intersektionell analys möjliggör en förståelse av att det måste ske en maktförskjutning av brukarnas rättigheter, men det är inte detsamma som att ett intersektionellt perspektiv uppmuntrar till en inverterad förståelse för assistenternas rättigheter.

Artikeln är rättssociologisk i så måtto att den undersöker konsekvenser av rättsliga fenomen; anställdas praktik ställs i relation till frågor om lydnadsplikt och arbetsskyldighet. Tanken är att artikeln ska bidra till förståelser om vad lydnadsplikt och arbetsskyldighet innebär (ur såväl ett juridiskt som praktiskt perspektiv) för personer med prekära anställningsformer såsom är fallet vid arbete i annans hem i form av personlig assistans.

5 Digital sociologi

The waves that sweep away: older ICT (non)-users’ experiences of digitalization
Magdalena Kania-Lundholm
Uppsala universitet
The goal of this paper is to empirically explore and understand how the ideas and cultural imageries of social acceleration and change are shared, and negotiated, among older non- and seldom-users of digital technologies. More specifically, it focuses on how older people reflect upon social change and development brought by the so-called waves of mediatization, including digitalization and, more recently, datafication (Couldry & Hepp, 2017). Mediation and the communicative organization of time are most often approached in terms of clocks, calendars and timetables. However, the lived experience of different waves of mediatization which being a non- or seldom-user of ICT offers, is a specific position in the lifecourse, which allows older people to reflect back upon the social change prompted by technological development.

This paper draws on Wajcman’s (2015) critique of existing social theories of contemporary society and the social shaping of technology approach, which implies that both social and technological changes are unpredictable, open-ended and often shaped by social, political and economic factors. Consequently, there is hardly universal and straightforward experience of time and technology but rather multiple temporal landscapes, which come into play when people (dis)engage with digital technologies. Wajcman’s approach challenges the dominant cultural imageries of technological development that directly link technological innovation and change with constant connectivity, efficiency, convenience, novelty and progress. This paper departs therefore from the idea that understandings and norms pertaining to social and technological acceleration are situated and context-embedded rather than universally experienced. The empirical data utilized in this paper consist of six focus group interviews conducted in Sweden in the autumn of 2017 with thirty older (65+) non- and seldom-users of ICT between the ages of 68 and 88.

The results of the analysis show that by describing the ideas and experiences of digital technologies prompted by the waves of mediatization both in their own lives and in society in general, the informants offer a broader reflection on social change and an ambivalent picture of social acceleration and progress. They agreed namely that digitalization is an inevitable process but argued simultaneously that several practices connected to it are not necessarily making lives easier. In fact, to some extent, digitalization and datafication have brought an opposite effect, they claimed: tickets can no longer be bought with cash at the train station and one cannot board a bus without a digitally purchased ticket or a bus card. Participants experience the social (and technological) development in the past 30 years as a very fast one while adjustment to it deemed to occur in a rather slow and weary way. Regardless of the fact whether they use digital devices today or not, several participants came into contact with computers as early as during the 1980s in their workplace. From that perspective, it could be argued, they’ve experienced the wave of digitalization, and what follows an intensified interrelatedness between different media and transformation of connective infrastructures (Couldry&Hepp, 2017).

It could be suggested that the nexus of old age and position in the life course on the one hand and new technologies and waves of mediatization on the other offers a perspective which can challenge the idea that technological development is synonymous with efficiency and convenience. And even though they have acknowledged that certain aspects of life can be done more quickly, in fact for some informants life has gotten more difficult and complicated.

Keywords: social acceleration, digitalization, older people, non-users, social shaping of technology

Prison media work: from manual labor to the work of being tracked
Anne Kaun
Södertörns högskola
Since January 2019, the Finish Criminal Sanctions Agency (CSA) is collaborating with the start-up company Vainu that is providing a comprehensive database over businesses on a global level and that employs artificial intelligence to predict the best business opportunities for its clients. In order to train artificial intelligence, the start-up has worked with Amazon’s mechanical turk hiring digital workers to classify content. The archetype work conducted by platform workers is content categorization for example whether an article is about the company Apple or the fruit. Mechnical turkers do what artificial intelligence is unable to do so far; they interpret context and feed the data back into the system based on which machine learning will improve algorithms. This works well for source material that is published in English, but there are not enough cheap workers on Amazon’s mechanical turk who can do these interpretations in Finish and other small languages. Consequently, the company was looking for an affordable alternative. At the time of writing, around 10 prisoners are categorizing content of business publications in two Finish prisons. The work requires no specific skills beyond the ability to read and very fundamental skills to handle a laptop. Rasila described the interface as game like with very simple classification tasks. The prisoners do not need any additional training and the custom-made laptops were delivered to the prisons by the company. Raisla and his colleagues know very little about the digital laborers in the middle-level security facilities, like the digital laborers on platforms like Upwork and Amazon mechanical turk, they pay their workers by delivered unit. At the same time, he sees the outsourcing to prisons as a contribution to rehabilitation efforts of Finish prisons. The products they sell – business predictions and connections – are based on the latest technology and he is proud that prisoners are part of and contribute to this kind of cutting-edge technological development.

Digital work in conjunction with artificial intelligence in prisons is the latest development of prison media work and at the same time shares a lot with its preceding forms of media work conducted in prison. In this presentation, we analyze the main logics and types of prison media labor and highlights important historical shifts in prison media work. We explore how prisoners were engaged in the construction, maintenance and repair of infrastructures of communication and media throughout the 20th century since the inception of the modern prison. Starting in the Swedish penal system with the unit mainly responsible for organizing prison labor – KrimProd – the presentation makes clear that prison labor has historically shifted from simple manual production towards cognitive forms of labor that contribute to the general development of surveillance based data capitalism as described by Mark Andrejevic (2007), John Forster and Robert McChesney (2014) and most recently by Shoshana Zuboff (2019). Rather than engaging in manual labor prisoners are increasingly conducting mainly and exclusively “the work of being tracked”, namely providing and generating data that are important resources to train and feed machine learning based technologies.

Social scientific contributions to algorithm production and adaptation: toward a plurality of algorithmic cultures
Christopher Swader
Lunds universitet
The social sciences have played too small of a role in the production of the algorithms used within scientific research processes. The implications of this are that the social sciences themselves are increasingly using tools ill-adapted to their own research routines. In addition, other disciplines are ‘losing out’ on the potential benefits of social scientific contributions to the production of algorithms that could be useful in other contexts.

Algorithms are defined as finite sets of codified procedures for solving a particular problem based on a given input. As such, they have something in common with some of the core concepts — such as routines, norms, regulations, and institutions — that are under constant usage and investigation by the social sciences. Yet unlike routines implemented directly by human beings, the algorithm executes its human-programmed solution on its own through the computer. This feature has led to a monopoly over algorithm production by fields dealing heavily with computers, especially computer science, artificial intelligence, and mathematics. Of course, experts in these fields tend to produce algorithms that are generally faster, more efficient, and more clever than novices in other fields. However, these same algorithms are produced according to disciplinary paradigms that differ greatly from some of the fields in which they are eventually applied, such as the social sciences.

That algorithms are produced according to paradigmatic knowledge and that there is a monopoly over this production by such knowledge means at least two things: (a) sometimes algorithms are produced in ways that are useful by social scientists but which do not fully match social scientific research paradigms, and (b) at least occassionally other fields may face problems requiring a different paradigmatic approach, and occasionally a social scientific one may fit the bill.

To claim that only computer scientists, AI-scholars, and mathematicians can design good algorithms is like claiming that only those in the publishing business can write good books. Of course, they know a lot about writing, about the marketing of books, about the structuring of books, as well as about the types of content that sells, and there are also certain types of content that publishing professionals even master better than others. Yet clearly, we would be missing out if the only books available were those conceived of and written by those in the publishing business. In a sense, those who write algorithms today are like the monks who studiously documented, wrote, and copied documents before literacy become widespread. A lack of algorithmic literacy causes potential contributions by most disciplines to remain unexpressed or latent. It is this latent disciplinary algorithmic cultural contribution, particularly a social scientific one, that this project wishes to demonstrate. In other words, this project will help to uncover the latent algorithmic culture of the social sciences and argue for its benefits both inside and outside of the social sciences.

1. To outline the characteristics of the social scientific research routines that constitute a latent social scientific algorithmic culture
2. To demonstrate the payoffs of this culture both (a) within and (b) outside of the social sciences.

6 Ekonomisk sociologi

Kontaktperson: Bengt Larsson (bengt.larsson@socav.gu.se)

Sellers, producers, buyers, consumers and the notion of markets
Petter Bengtsson
Stockholms universitet
The paper analyses the role of the seller in a market. Most theories about markets, regardless of discipline, assume that buyers and sellers are two sides of the same coin. Building on an analysis of a specific type of market, this paper instead finds that the role of the seller is underestimated in previous theories and that similarities and differences among sellers is one alternative root for theorizing markets and/or providing a sociological market theory.

Sharing data and competing for market dominance: co-opetition in liner shipping (2014-2019)
Tom Chabosseau
Uppsala universitet
Companies within an industry often need to cooperate. This raises the question of how usually competing actors shape conditions conducive to cooperation. This paper examines this question in the light of the recent developments in liner shipping. On the one side, dominant companies have been successful in fostering cooperation around digital issues. On the other, they have put into place strategies that may threaten the very existence of the challengers they wish to cooperate with. In this case, cooperation may even be seen as endowing dominant companies with the tools to corner the market. It is argued that cooperation was made possible by dominant companies’ framing of the issues of cooperation and competition through both the claims they make and the courses of action they engage in. In other words, they have contributed to shaping a collective representation of the industry where cooperation appeared as necessary in face of competition pressure. Empirically, the author builds on the analysis of patterns of claims and courses of action undertaken by dominant companies prior to challengers joining cooperative digital endeavors. In this way, processes whereby dominant companies strategically manipulate the organizational environment are unveiled. Data are collected from industrial magazines and coded with the help of quantitative narrative analysis methods.

María Langa
Uppsala universitet
While urban gardening continues to grow worldwide, the literature has largely assumed more than explained these activists’ construction of moral value as well as a process of institutionalization that leads towards privatization and commercialization. Moreover, the literature on valuation of nature in the urban environment has focused on the importance of place attachment, usually in relation to the preservation of the nature of specific places rather than nature practices. My research addresses these gaps by looking into the understudied case of Swedish urban gardening. In the past 10 to 15 years, urban gardening in Sweden has expanded with a growth of community gardens, urban farms and other projects outside the scope of traditional allotment associations. In a three-year ethnographic study, I explored the moral valuation of nature in relation to the projects’ sustainability and environmental claims. I found that urban gardeners feel a profound transformation in the embodied experience of gardening practice, which is tied in emotional attachments to a nature that is understood less as a place than an assemblage of beings and processes. In this presentation, I will address the way these moral values are embedded in the emerging economy of Swedish urban gardening and how these connect with the dynamics of economic interests in urban land. In Sweden, many urban gardeners are moving from allotment and community garden participation to the development of urban farms and small companies that market urban gardening expertise to public and private actors. Many also become freelance gardening professionals, an expertise that is often added to previous education in architecture, landscaping, urban planning, etc. They advocate for urban sustainability and for an ethical economy, one that bases its premises on ecological systems. Urban gardening in this sense portrays itself less as a movement to be supported by citizens and more as an ethical investment for both government and the private sector. First, I show that the way this ethics is constructed, conveyed and discussed derives from the moral valuation of nature in cultivation practice. The confidence in urban gardening as a form of environmental values education derives from the personal transformative experience of gardening practitioners. Projects work with different strategies that attempt to translate this experience for customers and other participants. Second, I argue that a moral valuation that emphasizes attachments to natural processes rather than emplaced natures or communities allows projects to be more willing to manage several gardens or farms as well as move from one location to another. This means that unlike traditional allotment associations which have broader institutional protection and thus a more permanent claim on their land, these new projects often need to move to continue their wok. These two findings show how the moral valuation of nature emerging in the embodied practice is not one of emplaced attachment, but one that provides the basis for an emergent economy, rather than a social movement, and one that engenders projects that are adaptable to the conditions of the urban economy rather than overtly opposed to them.

Motivating and demotivating effects of performance appraisals – performance-based pay in Swedish public sector organisations
Bengt Larsson
Göteborgs universitet
During the classic “Swedish model”-era wages and wage-increases were largely defined in central national collective agreements and coordinated tariffs, under the general principle of “equal pay for equal work”. During the last three decades wage setting has been decentralized and the local space for individual differentiation through performance-based pay systems has gained ground – particularly in the public sector and for white-collar workers. This paper studies to what extent line-managers and employees believe that the performance based pay system as such are beneficial for employee motivation and for the overall performance of their organisation and unit; and what factors that affect whether employees find the salary talk and performance appraisal to be motivating or demotivating for themselves. Empirically the paper is based on employee surveys (n 4313) in three big public sector organisations in Sweden: one municipality, one regional hospital and one state agency. Theoretically, the paper connects theories of motivation to an institutional logics approach. The main results are that less than 50% of the respondents believe performance pay to be motivating, but that line-managers think so to a higher degree than regular employees; and that experiences of being motivated or demotivated are explained by different factors. A general tendency was that increased motivation correlated with the usage of relevant performance criteria, the quality of the appraisal talk, and the preparations by the employee itself. There were, however, also important contextual and organisational differences, explained by institutional logics.

Identity and Social Norms – George A. Akerlof and Jon Elster on Nonrational Economic Behaviour
Erik Ljungar
Högskolan i Borås
When (economic) sociologists criticize neoclassical economics and/or rational choice theory, they often argue that factors such as institutions, social structure and/or “”culture”” often lacking in explanations of economic phenomena. Furthermore, the theory meets criticism because of unrealistic assumptions of human rationality.

Within Neoinstitutional economics, norms and institutions are taken into account. However, the explanatory models still rooted in rational choice assumptions; norms and institutions are primarily restrictions or factors that regulate rational economic action or behavior. Even within the field of Behavioral economics, “social” approaches towards economic behavior is considered. Still the neo-classical and/or rational choice paradigm is strong within the field. For example, “”sub-optimal”” outcomes or “bounded” rational choices are still the result of rational behavior. Sometimes preferences can change according to different contexts or situations; however, to explain these changes in preferences psychological or cognitive factors are prevalent, even if factors from social psychology sometimes are incorporated to explain group influence.

The economist Georg A. Akerlof (Nobel laureate 2001) has studied outcomes in the labor market and within work organizations. He has shown that labor markets often clear at non-optimal solutions for the actors involved. Further, Akerlof has shown that wage setting and recruitment of staff are based on sub-optimal or non-rational decisions from the employers. He has introduced the concept “identity utility” within economics to explain why actors sometimes make nonrational choices from an economic point of view. For example, decisions regarding career opportunities are often based on a person’s identity rather than economic utility maximization. The point in his model is that the “”identity benefit”” from a purely economic optimality perspective is non-rational. He use concepts such as social norms, categorization, social interaction; and inspiration from sociologists like Weber and Goffman.

The social philosopher Jon Elster takes departure from rational choice theory. He have thus systematically revised the rational assumptions in favor of emphasizing factors such as emotions, social norms and institutions explaining outcomes in the economic field and society at large. For example the role of social norms within bargaining and wage setting. Elster emphasize that social norms and institutions generate mechanisms that cause action or “”social interaction””, claiming that social norms sometimes cause nonrational decisions involving losses from an economic point of view.

Akerlöf and Elster have in common that they both “takes of” within the neo-classic and/or rational choice paradigm. The have both incorporated “”social”” factors into their models making them more realistic. Both have reached the conclusion that human action and behavior, even within the economic sphere, mainly caused by factors such as identity, social categories and social norms.

Dynamics of Viable Family and Household Reproduction
Martin D. Munk
The Free University
In this paper, I am outlining an explaining the dynamics of viable family and household reproduction. I understand dynamics as the result of an impairment of the viability of societies and families caused by an unproductive welfare capitalism, pressure on communities, and unsustainable practices of human beings. A core assumption is that the dynamics of household viability connects to the problem of environmental unsustainability.

I expect that these topics would contribute to an explaining of social dynamics and conditions of inequality and change of family reproduction in interaction with the environment, local communities, and the labour market. I argue for a development of societal models that go beyond models of welfare capitalism in order to address mechanisms of long-term viable households (OIKOS), communities, nurturing of new generations, and living conditions. I suggest reintroducing a classic understanding of OIKOS in which the economy and family are two sides of the same coin. It is worth noting that OIKOS is the linguistic root of economics, and means house and family. My idea is to explore the viability of communities, environment, families, and households – including aspects of work and business, quality of life, and socialisation of children in the family.

My reason for focusing on communities, families, and households derives from the findings, David J. Harding and I published in Social Forces 2019 showing that family stability, household structures, and labour market experience explain decreasing relative intergenerational income mobility. Therefore, I suggest exploring the character of the viability of households supposedly anchored in long-term multigenerational practices contrary to short-term unsustainable practices. Especially scholars like Pierre Bourdieu, Gerhard Lenski, and Robert Putnam have clearly pointed out the social importance of sustainable households and families, in particular that nurturing of new generations is vital.

I propose investigating experiments in communities and households, pursuing ways of life as depicted in “horticultural societies” (cf. Gerhard Lenski) or what is sometimes termed small-scale societies (Monique B. Mulder et al.) partly because of their usually low environmental impact, partly because of the potential of embedding different generations’ work in the communities. Moreover, this approach of research would allow for a practical scrutiny of the link between household viability and the problem of environmental unsustainability – subsequently going beyond models of welfare capitalism.

As noted by Mulder et al., intergenerational transmission of wealth and wealth inequality are substantial among pastoral and small-scale agricultural societies – on a par with or even exceeding the most unequal modern industrial economies – but are limited among horticultural and foraging peoples – equivalent to the most egalitarian of modern industrial populations. Elements worth exploring in this type of societies would be principles of circular economy, life satisfaction, and viability.

The underlying strategic principle of viable or sustainable households is rooted in long-term based multigenerational transmissions (i.e., transmissions over multiple generations in the household), contrary to short-term practices, despite a socially unequal distribution of transmissions. This strategic principle is in my view required to restore a crucial societal generational contract and is in need to provide models that fulfil necessary and sufficient conditions for recreating social, ecological and economic balances.

From Do It Yourself to Do It Together: sociological analysis of knowledge sharing in Stockholm Makerspace
Mayya Shmidt
Uppsala universitet
Strong civil society coupled with the Swedish innovative capacity created a dialogue between many stakeholders, which resulted in a creation of socially and economically important projects, such as the promotion of the sharing economy in large cities. Thу study focuses on one of such initiatives – Stockholm Makerspace –a community of nonprofessional makers. Makerspaces (or Hackerspaces/FabLabs) are positioned as part of the sharing economy, as initiatives which promote sharing practices; exercise self-governance (community-based), have strong reliance on technology and utilize local manufacturing and personal fabrication. Through interdisciplinary collaboration and shared access to tools, classes, and each other’s knowledge, the members of the makers’ community promote knowledge sharing and grassroots innovation.

The paper pinpoints the key elements of member-driven organization functioning and answers two research questions: (1) Why do members become part of the sharing initiative? And (2) What are the collective outputs the members seek to create?
The study is informed with the multiple kinds of data: (1) 11 in-depth interviews conducted with active members of community and experts, (2) ethnographic observation in situations of planned workshops and everyday life of the Makerspace, (3) systematic online observation. Triangulation of these materials provide more holistic view on the phenomenon under study.

Results revealed members of Stockholm Makerspace, acting as prosumers, attempt to benefit not only community under study, but also contribute to societal development at large, by creating a public good. Several motivational arguments were pronounced in the Makerspace community. Firstly, prosocial arguments. Members seeking for open-ended socializing involve into the Makerspace, as a “third place” – an urban site, which provides social experience outside our major places, where members spend a lot of time feeling welcomed and accepted. Second argument is expression of anti-consumerist values, accepted in the community. Some members are members due to their willingness to express their attitudes and “prosumer” identities by making artifacts and sharing experience within the walls of the Makerspace. These attitudes are closely connected to the third motivational argument, pronounced in the study. Sharing give members means of self-expression and means of unconditionally extending the circle of those who benefit from a shared resource. The collective outputs that Stockholm Makerspace community seeks to create are: (1) to sustain the non-for-profit organization through active communal involvement into care and maintenance practices and spreading “word of mouth” about the community to make it more visible, as such associations are significant for the civil society; (2) to enable forms of exchange, embedded in social structure and connectivity, based on weak ties; (3) to complement formal education sites by knowledge sharing, thus contributing to informal learning; (4) to provide involvement into STEM for diverse group of participants.

7 Emotionssociologi

Kontaktpersoner: Stina Bergman (Stina.BergmanBlix@soc.uu.se), Lisa Flower (lisa.flower@soc.lu.se)

To master the stone face: learning and habituating judicial emotions in court
Stina Bergman Blix
Uppsala universitet
This paper examines the learning and habituation of tacit emotion management necessary to sustain professional feeling norms and behavioural boundaries and techniques; the ‘emotive-cognitive frame’ of judges. The analysis is based on data from Sweden, building on a civil law system where judge is a career profession with specific training after law school. 43 judges at different stages of their career were interviewed and shadowed during their workday, including observations of court hearings. We find that the overarching demand for autonomy requires continuous self-evaluation, developed through several phases linked to increasing experience. During clerk training, the seemingly contradictory expectations of independence and emotional astuteness towards those of higher rank become consolidated and internalized. During judge training, autonomy develops through continuous self-evaluation to ensure conformity with standard judicial performance, epitomized by the stone face. Experienced judges may question the relevance of the stone-face norm, but to a large extent remain loyal to this ideal. For the more senior judges, the stone face can become solidified as a mask, but their habituated autonomy also paves the way for an ability to demonstrate emotional presence during hearings and discretion in evaluations.

Emotional Expectations: Exploring the Emotional Regime of a Criminal Trial
Lisa Flower
Lunds universitet

The invisible rules of emotional interactions in the Swedish criminal courtroom are the focus of this paper. This is explored by presenting the ways in which defence lawyers convey loyalty to their clients in an emotionally and interactionally appropriate way. This performance is particularly complex due to the subtlety that is called for in the Swedish courtroom, however these performances are not always in line with lay participants’ expectations. This paper will therefore also explore this clash of expectations as well as discuss how such emotional interactions are live-reported in the media and the ways in which legal professionals relate to such digital practices.

Barn med diagnoser. Betydelsen av känslor i mödrars utbildningsstrategier för sina barn.
Emma Laurin
Uppsala universitet
I Stockholms län hade 3,1 procent av alla tonåringar en autismdiagnos och 7,7 procent en ADHD-diagnos år 2016 (Centrum för epidemiologi och samhällsmedicin 2017). De allt vanligare men alltjämt kontroversiella diagnoserna är inte bara av betydelse för de diagnostiserade själva utan hanteras och debatteras i många delar av samhället. Inte minst har de kommit att spela roll i familjen där omsorg och fostran av barn med diagnoser blivit allt vanligare och i skolan där en ökande andel elever har diagnoser. I den här studien analyseras mödrars utbildningsstrategier för sina barn, bland mödrar till barn med autism och ADHD. Analysen ingår i ett avhandlingsprojekt där de sociala användningarna av diagnoserna ADHD och autism i skolan undersöks.

Studien är inskriven i en utbildningssociologisk tradition och de mest centrala begreppen – kapital, habitus, strategi och fält (Bourdieu 1996) – har hämtats från Pierre Bourdieus sociologi. Det empiriska materialet består av 38 intervjuer med föräldrar till barn med ADHD och autism, 14 intervjuer med rektorer samt statistik avseende grundskolors arbete för elever i behov av särskilt stöd samt skolornas sociala rekrytering.

Analysen av mödrarnas utbildningsstrategier för sina barn visar att mödrarna utövade en form av intensivt föräldraskap som kan kopplas till en osäker social reproduktion (Olsvold, Aarseth, Bondevik). Mödrarna upplevde att de, som mödrar, bar ett tungt individuellt ansvar för sina barns skolgång och de hamnade ofta i en strid med sina barns skolor om förståelsen av barnen, ansvar, resurser och skuld. I denna strid var barnens diagnoser men också mödrarnas uttryck för och hanterande av sina känslor (skuld, trovärdighet, känslor av berättigande och ilska till exempel) av central betydelse. På vilka sätt mödrarna stred för sina barns skolgång, hur de använde barnens diagnoser och sina känslor varierade mellan mödrarna och analyseras i studien mot bakgrund av mödrarnas sociala, kulturella och ekonomiska tillgångar samt det utbud av skolverksamheter mödrarna mötte.

Identity and emotions among policy professionals in civil society
Joanna Mellquist
Södertörns högskola
This article presents a typology of identity which policy professionals attribute to their roles in civil society. The main object of interest is to investigate identities and emotional commitment among policy professionals in CSOs and analyze what it means for their repertoires of action and orientation within civil society.
The analysis is drawn from ethnographic data and 42 interviews with policy professionals working at CSO in Sweden, Latvia and the Netherlands.

Key words: Emotions, identity, civil society, policy professionals

“Good teachers only yell when students throw knives”: How Emotion Work Helps Teachers Respond to Conflicts Constructively
Elizabeth Olsson
Göteborgs Universitet
From the curiosity that drives investigation to the empathy that propels perspective-taking, emotion plays a vital role during classroom conflict. While it is easy to appreciate that emotions matter during classroom conflict, it is far more challenging to understand how teachers find the strength to be curious and emphatic when faced with stressful social challenges during lessons. How can teachers respond to provocative student behavior with compassion? How can teachers react to a personal challenge with equanimity? How can teachers reply to a contradiction with curiosity? In the following paper, I answer these questions through the analysis of three constructive conflict situations I observed inside of primary school classrooms. This observational data allowed me to participate in conflict situations as they arose and investigate those situations from the perspectives of participants. In this paper, I employ the methodological tools of emotional participation and the co-creation of emotional narratives to understand how teachers’ emotion work affected and was affected by the constructive conflict situations I observed. In doing so, I found that teachers undertake rigorous emotion work as they employ challenging social situations to promote change and development inside their classrooms. In some case, this work is a result of decades of practice. In others, teachers accomplish emotion work through reflection. In still other cases, teachers’ emotion work inspires them to engage in creative action. Analysis of the laborious emotion work untaken by teachers provides new insights into the socio-emotional accomplishment of constructive conflict both inside and outside of classrooms.

Om akademiskt emotionellt hushållsarbete och utsatthet
Lisa Salmonsson
Örebro Universitet
Sara Kalm (2019) skriver om det hon kallar akademiskt hushållsarbete som handlar om ett osynligt (och ofta emotionellt) arbete som är viktigt för organisationen men som har låg status och som inte är meriterande. När jag läst artikeln var jag just klar med en delstudie som handlar om vad universiteten gjort för att motverka sexuella trakasserier från utsatta kvinnors perspektiv. I det kvalitativa material som jag samlade in fanns ett tema som återkom och som jag tänker relaterar till akademiskt hushållsarbete.

Temat samlade olika typer av beskrivningar av hur man efter att man utsatts för trakasserier förhandlar med sig själv om man ska rapporter och till vem man ska rapportera men det handlar också om att man i efterhand fortsätter denna förhandling om det var strategisk bra eller inte. Jag kommer i min presentetion försöka förklara på vilket sätt jag tycker att detta kan ses som akademiskt emotionellt hushållsarbete som tar tid från annat arbete som t.ex. forskning.

Learning prosecutorial emotion management
Åsa Wettergren
Göteborgs Universitet
In order for boundaries and norms of legal professional actors to settle and reproduce, the ‘emotive-cognitive judicial frame’ must be habituated; professional feeling rules and behavioural requirements must be incorporated as part of the professional identity. This paper investigates how the emotive-cognitive judicial frame becomes habituated with growing experience, from prosecutorial training to experienced prosecutors. 41 prosecutors in different stages of their career were interviewed once or twice while being shadowed in their daily work, during preliminary investigations and in court. Around 300 criminal hearings, involving prosecutors, were observed. For prosecutors ‘bounded independence’ – independent self-confident performance of objective prosecutorial powers which is paradoxically dependent on the efficient and deferential work of other professional groups – is a core competence. Bounded independence requires flexible use of techniques of emotional astuteness and elaborate insensitivity.

The first phase of habituating bounded independence is learning how to distance oneself from one’s own foreground emotions of embarrassment and insecurity, as well as from others’ communication of irritation, frustration and ridicule. Elaborate insensitivity protects prosecutors from attempts by others to weaken their self-confident performance. In the second phase, the need to manage one’s own foreground emotions decreases as emotion work becomes routinized. The performance of independence develops into a strategic and nuanced display of objectivity. In the final phase, emotional distance becomes securely habituated, allowing situated emotional presence and skilfully strategic emotional displays. Although independence is a critical individual requirement for inclusion within the rank and file of prosecutors, it builds on a solid ground of group solidarity and collective support.

8 Familj och nära relationer

Kontaktpersoner: Terese Anving (terese.anving@genus.lu.se), Catrine Andersson (catrine.andersson@mau.se)

“Vi ska dela på bördorna, vi ska dela på nöjena”. En studie av föräldrars förhandlingsprocesser om omsorg och hushållsarbete.
Jenny Alsarve
Örebro universitet
Drawing on qualitative interviews with 10 Swedish mothers and 10 Swedish fathers, this paper aims to study the negotiations between parents that take place before and after the birth of their first child. When expecting a child, parents are to decide for instance how to divide parental leave. After the child is born they have to negotiate about the division of care, paid work and house work. The ambition in this paper is to analyze how these negotiations take place, and how the initial negotiations are followed up later on, as the couple become parents. What is considered negotiable, and what is not, and is this something that changes over time? Swedish parents are particularly interesting to study as gender equality has been a political goal for a long time in Sweden. Nonetheless, earlier studies on Swedish parents have shown that the division work and care becomes more ‘traditional’ as couple become parents, and Swedish women still take more parental leave than men. The result of our study shows that while some couples described explicit negotiations about for instance parental leave, others witnessed about more subtle processes. The result furthermore indicates that external factors like working conditions and financial situation influenced the decision-making process, and that equality norms sometimes were accompanied by more gendered practices of care and work.

Drawing the line at infidelity – moral work in a Swedish context of consensual non-monogamy (CNM)
Catrine Andersson
Malmö universitet

Consensual non-monogamy (CNM) means having a relationship where it is possible to have more than one sexual and/or intimate partner at the time. The relationships are known to everyone involved, but often concealed from other people because of risks of negative reactions, discrimination and lack of legal protection for intimate and family relationships (Mägi and Zimmerman 2015; Pallotta-Chiarolli 2010; Anapol 2010; Tweedy 2011). Studies on CNM is a growing field internationally, but has hitherto only been explored in a limited number of Swedish studies focusing on polyamorous parenthood and experiences of going beyond normative expectations of intimate relationships. This article examines the moral work of people practicing CNM in relation to norms of intimate relationships, specifically the ideal of monogamy. It does so by tracing talk about infidelity in interviews with people practicing CNM. Without being an explicit theme in the interviews, infidelity appeared during the analysis as central for telling moral stories and presenting moral selves.

Essentially, the results of this study show the importance of looking at experiences of social interactions when exploring attitudes and stigmatization. The previous studies showing that polyamory for instance is viewed more favorably than swinging, open relationship and cheating, is cast in a different light observing that the accusation of infidelity can affect your interactions even though you and your relationships more resemble practices of polyamory. There is thus a blurring of categorizations that comes to light when looking at the experiences of people involved in CNM. And what is clear is that the blurring of categories and negative attitudes that the informants speak of, require a lot of work for the informants to handle, formulate answers to, and re-formulate to try and oppose the negative and limiting stereotypes surrounding CNM. I have explored this in terms of moral work, to draw attention to how morality plays out in the social interactions in their sexual stories. Moral are thus not only attitudes or norms that affect interactions, but they are actively used in the interactions, and the subsequent talk of these interactions that the interviews involve.

The moral work involved needs to be contextualized within the norm of monogamy. The transgressions of monogamy that CNM entails means that the informants cannot aspire to be normatively included, but they can still try to claim a moral self. They cannot circumvent the norms of monogamy in their stories (May 2008), instead they claim a moral self by reformulating moral hierarchies. The interviews represent sexual stories that to some extent have social worlds that support them (Plummer 1995), which is evident as they refer to communities of understanding and the collective work they are involved in reformulating relationship ethics. There are at the same time aspects that appear harder to express, and there is a lot of moral work and emotional hardship involved in formulating a response to moral judgement in a monogamous world.

Intergenerational care in Sweden: The use of biographical interviews
Terese Anving
Lunds universitet
Practices of care between grandparents, adult children and grandchildren are the hub of intergenerational relationships. To care for an elderly parent, or for a grandchild, is an engagement that can be a necessity coming out of lack of other care providers, or it can be an engagement you voluntarily take upon yourself. It can feel like an obligation, and/or as something you do out of love for your kin, as demanding and time-consuming, or as rewarding and emotionally fulfilling. The doings and significance of intergenerational care in everyday life and throughout the life course is the focus for the study that this paper is based on. Sweden is a particularly interesting case in this respect, given its history of extensive welfare state care solutions and the explicit aim of creating a society marked by social and gender equality through publicly funded social security networks such as elderly care, paid parental leave, and child care. This has meant that individuals historically have been relieved from having to rely and depend upon parents, children or relatives for support (Lundqvist 2011). However, quantitative studies indicate that intergenerational involvement has increased in recent decades and that it is related to gender, class, and ethnicity/migration (Björnberg & Ekbrand 2008; Szebehely & Ulmanen 2012). In this project we investigate this qualitatively, focusing on how intergenerational care is organized, negotiated, and experienced between generations, as well as how gender, class, and ethnicity/migration intersect and inform everyday doings of intergenerational care. In the project a three-generation approach is applied, involving grandparents, their adult children, and grandchildren. Through the use of innovative methods (such as diaries and visual methods) we capture doings and understandings of care between generations and in the same family. In this paper we will give you a first glimpse of the potential of using a biographical approach focusing specifically on the use of timelines as a methodological tool in interviewing.

Hardworking Women: Representations of Lone Mothers in the Swedish Daily Press
Disa Bergnehr and Helena Wahlström Henriksson
Högskolan i Borås, Högskolan i Jönköping
Lone mothers are a diverse group but it has been argued in previous research that they tend to be homogenised. This paper explores representations of single mothers in Swedish newspapers. Material from the two largest morning papers and the two largest tabloids was collected from the years 2015-2017. The results of the study suggest that although the newspaper representations do not fully reflect the diversity of social realities, there are indeed varying images of lone mothers in the sample. A recurring representation is as a comparatively poor and hardworking – even heroic – woman, who in political argumentation is referred to as someone in need of societal support and policy reforms. A less frequent representation, that often occurs in lengthy, in-depth pieces, is the affluent official person who despite her prosperity struggles with combining single (good) motherhood with her career, or the middle-class woman who becomes a lone mother via assisted reproductive technologies. Teenage motherhood (i.e., age), race/ethnicity, sexuality, and welfare dependence are seldom, if at all, alluded to. There is no vilification or condemnation of the lone mother, as has been found in research on other national contexts.

Full-time and part-time Single Parenthood: Joint Physical Custody and Economic Well-being of Families
Klara Capkova
Stockholms universitet
The implementation of joint physical custody after separation of the parental couple increased the share of parents who live with their children only part-time. Particularly for single parents, sharing the custody may reduce the difficulties associated with the dual role of the sole earner and sole caregiver, and therefore it may positively affect the economic well-being of their families. I use the Labor Force Survey data combined with the 2018 family module that allows for identification of families with children with regard to their number and residential status, including the share of the time they spend in the households of both parents. Employing multivariate regression models I study economic well-being of families with children, comparing couple families and single parent families with full-time and part-time custody. The preliminary results show that part-time custody over children does not affect the economic well-being of couple families, but it slightly improves the economic situation of single parents, and single mothers in particular. The results show that the part-time (shared) parenting, if adopted on a large scale in the society, can reduce the existing socio-economic gaps between different types of families with children.

In it together? Lesbian couples’ reasoning of (un)paid work and (in)equality when becoming parents in Sweden
Madeleine Eriksson
Stockholms universitet
International as well as national studies show that lesbian women emphasize relationship equality, and when coupling they tend to share the distribution of domestic work fairly equally. Less is known if and how this division change when they become parents; a transition known as a critical moment for reinforced inequalities in heterosexual couples. In Sweden, we lack longitudinal, qualitative research of how lesbian couples plan for and distribute paid and unpaid work when entering parenthood. This research aims to fill this gap by following how the division of care and labor unfolds over time among 20 lesbian couples. The women are interviewed separately at two times: during pregnancy and when the child is about 1,5 years old. The aim is to capture decision-making processes as well as the meaning of family, kinship and parenthood.

In this paper, I present preliminary findings based on the first round of interviews with the couples, focusing on the women’s plans and expectations for becoming parents. How do they narrate and make sense of their pre-pregnancy choices (timing for starting the process, who will carry the baby et cetera)? And how does this relate to their reasoning and expectations on family practices, for instance the division of parental leave and (un)paid work?

Parentalization of Same-Sex Couples: Family formation and leave rights in five northern European countries
Marie Evertsson
Stockholms universitet
Policies have important implications for how families are formed and how they live their lives. The family policy system was designed to cater to the heteronormative family; a (preferably married) mother and father with joint children. As new family constellations emerge and are legally recognized, it is important to study whether and to what extent the policies designed for the heterosexual, nuclear family also encompass other families.

In this paper, we enhance theories of welfare state development by introducing the concept of parentalization. We define parentalization as the ability to become parents and be recognized as such, legally and via social policies. To demonstrate an application of this new concept, we examine how states facilitate or hinder parentalization through laws and policies for same-sex parent families. We focus on five countries that were among the first to legalize same-sex unions/marriages and parenthood; the four bigger Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden), and the Netherlands. Whereas the Netherlands is known as a LGBT+ friendly nation with moderately generous family leave policies, the Nordic countries are considered among the most family-friendly in the world, partly due to generous family leave policies in terms of length as well as reimbursement levels. The extent to which these policies are available to all families have been little investigated though. By mapping the paths to legally recognized same-sex parenthood and family policy rights, we identify obstacles and hurdles on the road to full parentalization for same-sex couples in these countries.

[Co-authors Eva Jaspers, Utrecht University, Ylva Moberg, SOFI, SU]

Establishing equality within constraints: How lesbian mothers-to-be choose who carries the child and plan work and care after birth in the Netherlands
Allison Geerts
Stockholm University
The transition to parenthood is important, not only because of the arrival of new life, but also because it structures the lives and careers of women and men. Women tend to work and earn less after the transition to motherhood and women who become mothers in different-sex relationships tend to do more of the household labour and childcare than their male partners. Existing longitudinal research has almost exclusively studied the transition to parenthood in different-sex couples. In this study, we focus on lesbian couples, which allows us to gather novel insights on the operation of gender, identity formation, and economic incentives in couples not often included in family studies. We draw on in-depth interviews with 20 lesbian couples in the Netherlands who are expecting their first child. We interviewed both partners separately about the choices they made on their path to pregnancy, their view on parental roles, and how they plan work and care after birth. We investigate possible economic motives in the choice of the birth mother and whether this matters for how they see their future as parents. We find that choosing the birth mother is not, primarily, economically motivated and is part of a structured decision process. Almost all informants voice a strong wish to parent equally as mothers and many aim to reduce their work hours to make that happen (even when already working part time). Informants express feeling constrained by short partner leave after birth and unpaid parental leave. Interviews with informants employed in male dominated occupations or sectors suggests that work environment matters and that some employers approach social mothers as “fathers” or secondary caregivers.

Mapping Sugar Dating in Sweden
Lena Gunnarsson och Sofia Strid
Örebro universitet; Lunds universitet
Since the launch of the first sugar dating site in Sweden in 2017, sugar dating has recurred as a hot topic in media and public debate. Although, as this paper will address, the very definition of sugar dating is contested, it is generally comprised of an arrangement between a ‘sugar babe’ and a ‘sugar daddy’ (or sometimes ‘mama’), where dating and/or sex is compensated for by the daddy in the form of money and/or other gifts.

The aim of this paper is to map the practices of sugar dating in a Swedish context, answering two broad questions:
• What are the practices of sugar dating?
• Who are the sugar daters?

The paper is based on qualitative and quantitative data from an ongoing Forte-funded research project on sugar dating. The bulk of the material was gathered in 2019 and consists of three sets of empirical data: semi-structured interviews with sugar babes and sugar daddies; survey data of members of a major sugar dating site; and membership data of registered users of the same sugar dating site.

The paper uses a broad definition of sugar dating, reflecting the participants’ own understandings. A striking feature in the material is the wide variety of practices engaged in under the rubric of ‘sugar dating’, including: the straight-forward selling of sex; economically compensated relationships imitating conventional coupledom; fancy, gender-traditional dates paid for by the ‘daddy’ and ending with sex (with or without additional monetary compensation); and economically compensated online relationships with no sexual content. This multiplicity contrasts both with the wide-spread discourse in Swedish public debate that sugar dating is simply a cover for conventional prostitution, and with the sugar dating industry’s – and some sugar dating researchers’ – claims that sugar dating is something other than prostitution.

The masculine project. Psychoanalytic and phenomenological reflections
Gunnar Karlsson
Stockholms universitet
In my talk I will discuss masculinity from a subjective perspective, more specifically from a psychoanalytic perspective supplemented with phenomenological reflections. A vantage point for this discussion is the distinction between sex/being a male and gender/masculinity.

When it comes to discussing gender, the focus is on phallic masculinity which is the way that masculinity is typically conceived of. Phallic masculinity is understood as a reaction to the existential conditions of human beings. The focus is on the boy’s/man’s striving for a phallic masculine identity – a striving that can be described in terms of “project”. The term “project” indicates that phallic masculinity is a striving for a possibility which is not yet realized, and it is argued, will never be realized, since it entails a denial of our existential conditions such as our helplessness, vulnerability and dependence. From a psychogenetic point of view phallic masculinity is conceived of as a repudiation of the motherly (the primary caregiver’s) containment.

No doubt, the relation between sex and gender is intricate and intertwining, but to abolish the distinction between them is no solution. I argue that the relation between the sexual identity and gender (phallic masculinity in this case) as a project should be understood as gender representing the individual’s relation to the sexually cultural conditioned meaning. What makes the consideration of gender necessary is that all historical, social and cultural meaning, that has been identified with one’s sexual identity calls for an answer, for a position on existing gender ideals. The answer either takes the form of a striving for a gender identity or a rejection of the idea that there is such a thing as gender identity, that is, the claim that there exists a specific meaning attached to one’s gender.

Apart from phallic masculinity I will briefly mention two other forms of masculinity, one of which is the so-called “hypermasculinity” which is an extreme form of macho masculinity with its inclination to violence, sexism and xenophobia. A third form of masculinity is best captured by an oxymoron/paradox, as a “demasculinized masculinity”. The demasculinized masculinity takes off from a phallic masculine ideal in a liberating movement; it is an experience of being genuinely masculine by liberating oneself from phallic masculine ideals.

I also want to argue for the importance of introducing a kind of ego-identity into the field of sex/gender research. Such an ego-identity concerns both an ego-identity that precedes sexual identity/possible gender strivings as well as one that is developed beyond sexual identity/possible gender strivings, as a kind of humanization that is a possibility for the human being to strive for an authentic life. By an introduction of ego-identity within this field of research, I believe that we make available a more rigorous formation of concepts. It also makes it easier to liberate oneself from stereotyped gender and masculinity ideals. Furthermore, it shows the relevance of authenticity in the discussion about sex and gender.

A Snapshot of Childhood a Glance at Young Adulthood. An explorative study of children’s living arrangements during childhood and their educational outcomes in adulthood
Eva-Lisa Palmtag
Stockholms universitet
Previous research has established that there is a heterogeneity in children’s outcomes following family transitions. Nevertheless, there is still a need to broaden our knowledge of why we find this heterogeneity (e.g. Härkönen et al.; Lee & McLanahan, 2015).
It is well established that children with separated parents in general have less educational success compared to children who lived with coupled-parents (see e.g. Bernardi & Radl, 2014). Single-parent households, in general, have less economic, educational and social resources compared with a parental couple household (see e.g. McLanahan, 2004; Nieuwenhuis, R. & Maldonado, L. C., 2018). Consequently, previous research also showed, that children who lived with a single parent during childhood achieve less educational success compared to children who lived with coupled-parents (see e.g. Nieuwenhuis, R. & Maldonado, L. C., 2018).
Additionally, some findings has pointed out multiple family transitions as another explanation to why some children do worse than others do post-separation.

In a U.S. based study Hill and colleagues (2001) investigates the associations between the variety in family structure and later behaviors in young adulthood as they explore the relationship between a broad range of different family forms, later educational attainment and daughters’ risk of non-marital births. Their results vary by child’s gender, e.g. that daughter’s education is positively associated with a late parental re-marriage and son’s education is positively influence by a late separation (Hill et al, 2001).
The importance of multiple transitions on child development was also confirmed in another study on U.S: data (Lee & McLanahan, 2015). In short, their findings reveal that the type of instability/transition is important, if it is a move in or out of a two parent household, and not just if there is any transition (Lee & McLanahan, 2015).

A Swedish study by Fransson et al. (2018) used cross sectional data to investigate how family structure influence the well-being of children. They focus on shared residence and could control for a step-parent in the responding parents household. They do not have any data on multiple transitions but their results add new knowledge on the importance of step-parents for children’s outcomes.

Drawing on these previous studies my intention with this study is further exploring the importance of multiple family transitions. This will be done by including the type, length and timing of the transition in childhood in the analyses and see how it influences children’s outcomes, such as education, in adulthood.
The main research question that will guide these analyses is: Are children that only lived with a single parent after separation less well of than children that spend some time with both parents and/or had a step-parent present?
The study will base on a very rich data material from the LNU-2000 (5142 respondents) containing the childhood living arrangements (age 0 to 16) for approximately 580 respondents (11 %) that experienced a parental separation.

Relationella risker och möjligheter i berättande om beslutet att förstora brösten
Petra Roll Bennet
Stockholms universitet
“Jag tänker göra en bröstförstoring” är ett uttalande som kan komma att göras av en kvinna som har beslutat att genomgå ett kirurgiskt ingrepp för att hennes bröst ska bli större. Att berätta för familj och vänner om beslutet att genomgå en kirurgisk bröstförstoring kan vara förknippat med både risker och möjligheter när det gäller hur det tas emot, och vilka konsekvenser som kan följa i de olika relationerna. Hur beslutet att förstora brösten tas emot är naturligtvis beroende av de nära relationernas beskaffenhet och även det större sociala sammanhanget; som samhällets syn på kvinnor, deras kroppar och deras förmågor till beslut.

Presentationen är en del av en pågående studie om kosmetisk kirurgi och materialet utgörs av ett nätbaserat diskussionsforum. Forumet har en sökfunktion och urvalet av inlägg har gjorts genom att analysera inlägg där ordet ”berätta” ingår i rubriken mellan år 2010-2019. Dessa trådar kategoriserades efter vem eller vilka som var i fokus för berättandet som mamma, pappa, partner, barn, vänner eller syskon.

Syftet med delstudien är att beskriva argument för och emot att berätta om kirurgin i de olika relationerna. Analys av trådarna visar att det finns uttryckta risker respektive möjligheter kopplade till de olika relationerna. Exempelvis finns en tydlig förväntan på att mamman ska acceptera och stötta beslutet, men samtidigt en stark oro för att det inte kommer bli så. Pappan framträder istället som den person för vilken det finns störst risk i att berätta om beslutet, i många fall uttrycker kvinnorna därför att de väljer att inte berätta för sin pappa. Att berätta för egna barn är en farhåga som rymmer risker att föra över känslor av att inte duga som du är, och särskilt gäller det flickor. De olika riskerna och möjligheterna och vad kvinnorna förväntar sig ska hända visar på en önskan om absolution från sina närmaste, och en stark oro för att riskera att bli sedd som en person med svag självkänsla och som ytlig och slösaktig.

Presentationen avslutas med en diskussion utifrån ett feministiskt perspektiv där kvinnorna kan sägas vara utsatta i dubbel bemärkelse; de förhåller sig till samhälleliga förväntningar på kvinnors kroppar och samtidigt uttrycker de hur de riskerar att få negativa reaktioner på sitt beslut. Kroppen blir som Pitts-Taylor skriver ”a zone of social conflict” (Pitts-Taylor, 2009:124).

Omsorg mellan generationer i ombildade familjer
Hanna Samzelius
Örebro Universitet
Traditionellt har familj åsyftat den heterosexuella kärnfamiljen, men idag finns ett större utrymme att välja andra familjeformer. Från 1970-talet och framåt har separationer och ombildandet av nya familjer blivit vanligt förekommande. Detta innebär att fler och fler åldrande män och kvinnor idag lever tillsammans med en partner som har barn från en eller flera tidigare relation(er) och som de har haft någon form av social vuxen-barn-relation med. Många av dessa numera vuxna barn har fått egna barn. I min avhandling, utifrån vilken jag kommer utgå i min presentation, studerar jag hur dessa relationer har gjorts och förhandlats över tid samt vilka förutsättningar som finns för att hjälpas åt och ge omsorg mellan generationerna idag.

Omsorg om både äldre och barn, inom ramen för familjerelationer, ges – och förväntas ges – idag i större utsträckning av kvinnor än av män, varför kvinnors erfarenheter ses som en strategisk utgångspunkt för att få inblick i hur utbyten av stöd och omsorg sker inom ramen för ombildade familjer. Traditionellt har de relationer som jag intresserar mig för benämnts som styvmamma, styvdöttrar och styvbarnbarn. Jag väljer att istället kalla dem för kvinnliga ”föräldrapartners”, ”partnerdöttrar” och ”partnerbarnbarn”.

Avhandlingen bygger på 19 intervjuer, i form av livsberättelser, med 1) kvinnliga föräldrapartners (som nu även blivit morföräldrapartners) samt 2) partnerdöttrar som numera fått egna barn. Resultatet grundas på en narrativ innehållsanalys där meningsskapande och vändpunkter står i fokus. Utgångspunkt tas i sociologiska teorier om samhällets individualisering samt i teorier om intergenerationell solidaritet/ambivalens. Studien fokuserar genom begrepp såsom familjepraktiker, förhandlingar och reciprocitet på hur föräldrapartners och partnerdöttrar tillsammans med biologiska föräldrar, barn och barnbarn aktivt skapar sina relationer i förhållande till rådande normer och värderingar om barndom, ålder, kön och familj. På samma vis riktas intresset mot modrande som social praktik med fokus på vad kvinnor gör snarare än det de är, till skillnad från det biologiskt bestämda ”moderskapet”.

Presentationen kommer fokusera på partnerdöttrarnas erfarenhet av omsorg i relation till sina föräldrapartners över tid och hur de resonerar kring att hjälpas åt mellan generationerna idag. Partnerdöttrarnas förståelse för föräldrapartnerns omsorg, eller brist på omsorg, diskuteras såväl som de motiv som framförs avseende att utöva, eller inte utöva, omsorg om föräldrapartnern idag. Studien speglar både vad som uppfattas som mycket, respektive mindre, omsorgsfulla relationer. Studien visar att tillfället då partnerdöttrarna får egna barn kan innebära en viktig vändpunkt i relationen till föräldrapartnern, som innebär att relationen omvärderas och omförhandlas, vilket får betydelse för vilken omsorg som utbyts mellan generationerna.

Relationships With Adult Children and Depression of Older Parents in China, Estonia, the Netherlands and Sweden
Wu Jing
Göteborgs universitet
Background: Previous studies have focused on support exchange, reciprocity and intergenerational relationships for the well-being of older people in general. However, there is a need to further ascertain the relationship between family support exchange with adult children and health, specifically depression, among older mothers and older fathers, separately.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the associations between relationships with adult children and depressed mood of older parents in China, Estonia, the Netherlands and Sweden in the contexts of collectivism and individualism. Two hypotheses are tested. First, there are more contacts with children and upward transfers from children to older parents in China and Estonia than in the Netherlands and Sweden. Second, older parents with contacts with children and transfers from children are less likely to have depressed mood than counterparts. Special attention is given to gender in this respect.

Data and methods: The analyses build on harmonized data with older parents 60+ from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (2013) and China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (2013). Binary logistic regression models were used. Self-rated health, education, employment, marital status, co-residence with child, and age were adjusted for as covariates in the models.

Results and main conclusions: Our preliminary results showed that there are more contacts with adult children among older parents in the Netherlands and Sweden than those in China and Estonia; however, transfers from children to older parents are higher in China and Estonia than in the Netherlands and Sweden. We initially observed an association between contacts with adult children and depressed mood among older fathers in China and among older mothers in Sweden. The preliminary conclusions can be made that contacts with adult children have impact on depression of older parents, but not the upward transfers from adult children to older parents.

Konstsociologi

Kontaktperson: Henrik Furst henrik.furst@soc.uu.se, Christopher Mathieu christopher.mathieu@soc.lu.se;

Yearime Castel Y Barragan
Stockholms universitet
We have made a study of theatre performers’ professional path, our interest is due to the fact that there are a series of elements that make it a particular career. To begin, their labour days are not fix because they have project based jobs, which sometimes have as consequence a multiplicity of activities to complement their income. Moreover, there is an incertitude that is always present, not only during the creative process but also by the fact of not knowing when the next project will take place and under what circumstances. Finally in terms of social security and other labour rights, their situation is not the same as where monthly payment is assured by long term contracts that allow the access to pension and medical care, among others.

Through out a performer’s professional life, these trajectories reflect the importance of places, as a starting point there is the educational institutions and the importance they have, first as a signal of prestige and distinction among performers, as well as the place where professional networks genesis happens. Later on, once performers join professional scenes there is a need and use of work-spaces, where performers rehearse and eventually play in front of an audience. Various profiles are found through out an artists’ career such as classical theatres, parks, alternative spaces, cultural places, etc. Findings have shown that venues’ profile (position) are an element linked directly to performers’ position and possible change of position. Added to this, there are signals that show that working-spaces may influence artists’ creative process and although we do not go deep into the subject, we consider worth mentioning it as part of the role these places play though out the different stages a performer has within their career.

For this study we have interviewed 30 Swedish performers, we have asked them about three different moments of their performing life, their different positions, careers’ mobilities and the workspaces they have worked in. The objective is to explore the role social networks play in Stockholm theatre world. What are the characteristics of a performer’s profession nowadays? Does the fact of graduating from “X” or “Y” school determines a certain path? Is there any chance performer can join the main circuit without taking into consideration a network strategy?

We use the term position to determine where both performers and venues are situated within the market. For this we have used a scale that goes from 0 representing the mainstream to 10 representing the underground. Studies have shown that there tend to be a communication where the upper ground is fed by underground with bold, new ideas. Different from other cities, where the presence of squats and alternative places is still active, the case of Stockholm seems to be almost forgotten. What do underground vs mainstream venues look like in Stockholm? If performers move between the mainstream and the underground, what motivates them to do so?

This paper is a first glimpse of what the career of performer is like in Sweden, their obstacles and their motivations, it is not meant to be exhaustive, but to light the first differences between Stockholm performers and a study made within Parisian performers in 2017.

Om nyttan av sociologiskt tänkande för studiet av konsten
Marta Edling
Södertörns högskola
Det konstvetenskapliga studiet förutsätter en kompetens som förmår urskilja och särskilja studieobjektets visuella egenskaper. En bärande idé är att konstvetaren, genom att behärska mångfalden av uttryck i konsten men också de regelbundenheter som framträder, på ett meningsfullt sätt kan begripliggöra dessa. Till exempel för att belysa deras samtida relevans, inbördes sammanhang och utveckling över tid bortom deras enskilda uppdykande i ett enskilt verk vid en viss historisk tidpunkt.

Utifrån detta har disciplinen utvecklat bärande idéer om konstens spridning och utveckling där konstens formala aspekter ställs i centrum. Detta idégods kallas ibland stilhistoria, och den som vandrade runt i Nationalmuseum före den nya hängningen och nyöppningen 2018 kunde tillgodogöra sig en ordnad berättelse från medeltida gotik till det sena 1900-talets symbolism i enlighet med detta narrativ. Den som idag besöker Paris och betalar inträde till Centre Pompidou i Paris, får på samma sätt en konsthistorisk guidning från det tidiga avantgardets abstraktion åren kring 1910 (Picasso, Malevich, Kandinsky t.ex) fram över 1900-talets alla -ismer till dagens konstnärliga forskningsprojekt om antropocen och hållbar utveckling.

Men vad gör en konstvetare med konstnärliga fenomen som framstår som ”orena”, som ter sig anakronistiska, och som är estetiskt motsägelsefulla och inte svarar upp mot ”diskursens ordning”? Här tystnar ofta konstvetaren och väjer för avvikelsen eftersom redskapen fallerar. Vilket innebär att epistemologiska villkor här och nu förhindrar begripliggörandet av fler och ”annorlunda” då (och nu)

För min del har en väg att lösa dilemmat varit att tillfälligt lämna den estetiska förståelsehorisonten, och att sluta försöka förstå konsten konstnärligt för att istället försöka förstå den sociologiskt. I min presentation skall jag diskutera ett sådant ”problematiskt material” och försöka illustrera hur sociala och ekonomiska dimensioner av konstens rum ibland kan bidra till att begripliggöra varför konst och konstnärer beter sig som de gör.

Den litterära karriären efter debuten
Henrik Fürst
Uppsala universitet
Vad händer efter den skönlitterära debuten? Denna presentation redogör för mönster i de senaste decenniernas utgivning av skönlitteratur och författaraktiviteter. Utifrån ett statistiskt underlag tydliggörs i vilken utsträckning författare fortsätter att publicera böcker efter den skönlitterära debuten. Vilka är författarna som fortsätter eller inte fortsätter att publicera sig efter debuten? Har genre, förlagsnamn eller om författaren är egenutgiven eller inte betydelse för den fortsatta karriären? I vilken utsträckning samvarierar karriären med sådant som författarens anslutning till litterär agentur? Dessa är exempel på frågor som kommer att ställas under presentationen. Ambitionen är att utröna vilka faktorer som kan tänkas vara av betydelse för olika typer av författarkarriärer, vilket sannolikt återspeglar större mönster inom kulturella och kreativa näringar.

The world economy of literary prestige
Jacob Habinek
Institutet för analytisk sociologi
This presentation examines the world economy of literary prestige through the lens of the first seven decades of the Nobel Prize in Literature. The Nobel Prize in Literature was the first prize of its kind, and remains unique in its cultural standing and widespread recognition. As such, it offers a valuable perspective on how literary merit is evaluated and comes to be recognized at the global level. Using archival records of the Nobel Committee of the Swedish Academy, I consider the role of several factors in the selection process: the global diffusion of European literary forms and publishing industry standards, the emergence of national and international literary communities, and the relative influence of different classes of nominators. Preliminary results indicate changes roles for writers, academics, and cultural organizations in the face of the global upheavals of the twentieth century.

Offentlig konst och den sociala verklighetens estetik – Reflektioner på Georg Simmel’s artikel ”On Art Exhibitions” (1890)
Magnus Karlsson
Lunds universitet

Georg Simmel’s artikel ”On Art Exhibition” (1890) är ett intressant bidrag till hur konstutställningar följer sin tids pågående specialisering. Människans ensidighet i det hon gör kompenseras av hennes mångsidighet i det hon konsumerar, menar Simmel, och antyder att konstutställningarnas behov av att pressa in så många upplevelser som möjligt motsvaras av storstadens färgrika och rastlösa liv. Samtidigt visar moderna konstutställningar att ju friare och mer distanserat vårt förhållningssätt är till det individuella konstverket ju mer frigör vi oss från att ensidigt och oreflekterat bara imponeras av vissa konstnärers – eller en viss typ av konst – magiska trollspö. Den moderna konstens mångsidiga innehåll höjer mänskligheten till en klarare och nyktrare utsiktspunkt för kritisk granskning, enligt Simmel. Ett konstverks förtjänster kan peka ut felaktigheter – estetiska, moraliska och intellektuella – med ett annat. Och precis som i vardagslivet behöver vi vara medvetna om lapsusar – i skiftet mellan idé och handling – i ett sammanhang för att kunna se dem i andra. Konstens opposition mot tiden är i denna mening en opposition mot jämnstrukna och uniformerande stilideal som annars hotar att kväva kulturens utveckling. Thomas Mann låter en av sina hjältar förkunna: hellre en öken än en trottoar, hellre en vilde än en frisör! Kontroversen kring ett konstverk kan med andra ord ses som ett sundhetstecken. I disharmonin eller konflikten om konstverkets betydelse kan kulturen utvecklas i samma mån som sociala motsättningar kan förstärka relationer mellan människor.

Det som oroar Simmel mer än något annat är emellertid att den moderna erfarenheten av konst kommer att leda till ett hot som kommer överskugga alla dessa fördelar, nämligen; ytlighet och en blasé attityd. När intrycken blir för många, för extrema och provocerande måste människan ta skydd bakom ett mentalt pansar som vänder henne bort från samhällets tröghet och larm. Detta i sin tur leder till att åskådaren får svårt att hantera sådant som väcker känslor. I följande presentation vill jag diskutera den offentliga konstens roll – som både bärare av kulturella värden och som kraft i ett demokratiskt samhälles fria samtal – i ljuset av Simmels både pessimistiska och optimistiska reflektioner om konstens betydelse för ett vitalt och livskraftigt samhälle. I vilken mån bidrar den till vår tids stora frågor och i vilken mån finns det risk för att den bidrar till att hejda oss från att samsas i det gemensamma rummet och därmed från att delta i det offentliga samtalet? Utvecklingen av den offentliga konsten – och konsten i allmänhet – följer sin samtid och dess förändringar, men resulterar kontroverserna kring ett konstverk till sund samhällsutveckling eller till apati – en intresselös betraktelse – och en dröm om det som varit?

(Dis)Placing women in public sphere: art, motherhood, citizenship and belonging in urban context 
Natalia Krzyzanowska
Örebro University

My paper focuses on discursive constructions of motherhood in Polish post-1989 critical art. I view the latter as the key site of discursive re/significations of gender in which women-artists deconstruct the historical doxa of motherhood and re(dis)cover its new meaning(s) connected with women’s citizenship and belonging. The paper is built on the premise that critical art breaks the deep-seated underrepresentation of women in the Polish public sphere. The presentation draws therefore on critical feminist theory as well as on the political philosophy of Hannah Arendt. Against a variety of examples of works by Polish (female) critical artists and their constructions of motherhood and citizenship after 1989, I examine in particular the works of Joanna Rajkowska. I show that her critical-artistic public expressions of individual reflexivity, agency and memory offer insights into individual experience of motherhood while creating examples of alternative public discourses of gender. I argue that through performing narrative of the self in the public incl. urban contexts, critical artists such as Rajkowska emphasise both the role of women and the political character of birth-giving and thus legitimise women’s claim for presence in post national public sphere/s. A new type of (displaced) transnational citizenship is thereby foregrounded and viewed as the key antidote to traditional and hegemonic visions. Realised in such post-national contexts as the urban spaces, this post-national citizenship is viewed as the key component of discourses that critique the nationally-specific and historically contingent visions of gender while offering its new public and private conceptualisations and significations.

Culture and Creativity Management – en ny masterinriktning, en ny forskningsmiljö och pågående forskning vid Institutionen för service management och tjänstevetenskap, Lunds universitet
Katja Lindqvist
Lunds universitet

Min egen forskning, som är influerad av konstsociologi sedan mina studier i konstvetenskap med konstsociologisk inriktning vid Stockholms universitet i början av 1990-talet (inriktningen lades ned kort därefter), och om en ny inriktning inom masterprogrammet i Service Management vid min nuvarande institution, med betydande konstsociologiska inslag, där villkoren för kulturell och kreativ verksamhet diskuteras ur främst sociologiska och ekonomiska perspektiv. Knutet till dessa är en nyetablerad forskningsmiljö vid Campus Helsingborg vid Lunds universitet, med namnet Kulturens rum och kreativitetens villkor, där en tvärvetenskaplig grupp forskare och lärare vid Lunds universitet (samfak, humfak, konstfak) från och med hösten 2019 kommer att utveckla aktiviteter kring produktion och konsumtion av konstnärliga och kreativa uttryck.

Masterinriktningens kurslitteratur bygger i hög grad på nyligen publicerad sociologisk och ekonomisk litteratur rörande framförallt produktion av konstnärliga och kreativa produkter och tjänster, det konstnärliga och kreativa produktionsfältet, men även klassiska studier av konstproduktion och -konsumtion. Syftet med utbildningen är att ge framtida yrkesverksamma inom kulturella och kreativa verksamheter samt idéburen sektor en bred samhällsvetenskaplig förståelse för och redskap för att utifrån etiska riktlinjer utveckla, organisera och leda denna typ av verksamheter.

Min egen forskning är inom fältet arts management, med tydliga influenser från konstsociologi och organisationssociologi utöver från governanceforskning.Just nu arbetar jag med forskning om effekter av politiska satsningar på kulturella och kreativa näringar, och frågar mig bland annat ifall dessa har någon effekt på utövarnas villkor. Detta forskningsprojekt som görs inom ramen för en Flexit-anställning (RJ) på Region Skånes kulturförvaltning, pågår 2019-2021. Inom ramen för detta projekt planerar jag ett bokkapitel för utgivning 2020, och en bok om cultural and creative industries policy med Palgrave Macmillan 2021. För mina tidigare publikationer, se https://www.ism.lu.se/katja-lindqvist
Miljön Kulturens rum och kreativitetens villkor kommer att ha en egen hemsida, men är fortfarande under uppbyggnad.

Already the unhappy artist? Why do schoolchildren who engage in expressive artistic activities feel worse than those who don’t?
Chris Mathieu
Lunds universitet
“I see myself forever and ever as the ridiculous [person], the lonely soul, the wanderer, the restless frustrated artist, the [person] in love with love, always in search of the absolute, always seeking the unattainable.”  ― Henry Miller (1962 orig Stand Still Like the Hummingbird)

In a recent analysis of the Folkhälsoenkät Barn och Unga i Skåne 2016 (Kaya & Mathieu 2019) an interesting finding arose. Children who engaged in creative/expressive artistic activities felt worse on a synthetic well-being scale than those who did not engage in such activities. This challenged the blanket assumption that engaging in artistic activity is pleasurable and beneficial for wellbeing. Though possibly not the most statistically robust finding, it spurred a search for explanations.

On the empirical level it raised the question of what and how much we actually know about the coupling of artistic activities and well-being among school-aged youths? What do we know about the social world of youth and adolescent arts engagement from this perspective? Much of what we know about the coupling of health and activities like singing in choirs, creative writing, playing music among (amateur) adults finds positive health benefits. But our findings run counter to this and may be more linked to another popular, anecdotal or possibly scientific notion of the “unhappy artist.” At what age might the unhappy artist syndrome begin? Might the socio-psychic factors that artistically active youths experience be more like occupational artists than amateur adults who engage in expressive and artistic activities for pleasure and with limited aspirations? Is it more like work? Or is artistic practice among youths a unique social form which may have common structural dimensions as well as harbouring and rendering individual variation in interpretation and effects?

A number of theoretical explanations can plausibly be applied and may be explanatorily relevant. One has to do with the two “happiness” paradigms – eudaimonia and hedonia. This lines up well with the finding in the same population those who engage in cultural consumption (hedonia) have greater wellbeing than those who do not, while the finding discussed above may be more eudaimoniac – a more hard-won benefit or satisfaction with lower wellbeing during the “investment” phase. Another hypothesis derives from exertion-recovery theory from working life studies. Here the analogy would be that school is the child’s primary occupation and that another activity with stressors and performance demands leads not to recuperation and recovery, but rather increases the child’s overall stress level.

A further alternative is that there is no causal or generative relationship between artistic activities and wellbeing, i.e. that there is non-causal correlation such as persons with lower wellbeing for other reasons engaging in artistic activities to a greater extent
In any case the variety of effects of engagement in artistic activities among school-aged youths warrants further investigation and a precise and dedicated research agenda, especially as multiple factors and effects can be posited to be at play, causing us to question the assumption and frequent assertion that artistic activity categorically increases wellbeing.

Art and Collective Memory: Individual artists as (potentially controversial) renders of a collective past
Magnus Ring
Lunds universitet
This paper takes its starting point in a controversy regarding the memorialization of the terror attack at Utöya, Norway, in 2011. This controversy – in short – was about a memorial suggested by the artist Jonas Dahlberg that was later refused. This case points towards a more general question about the role of artists when it comes to representation of collective traumas and memories which in turn opens up the paper for a more general discussion on the relationship between artistic expression and collective memory and memorialization.

This discussion focusses on the memorialization of difficult or traumatic events by using examples from both visual art and literature in order to discuss issues of the relationship between aesthetics and ethics as well as individual creativity and collective memory. This relationship is exemplified with cases directly related to officially sanctioned memorials such as monuments, but also more generally in terms of artistic expressions that relates to specific events but without explicitly being “memorials” (e.g. art and literature that “represent” collective experiences). Doing so the paper also addresses more indirectly how major societal change generally speaking may be remembered and in particularly so what role artists play in respect to collective memories and particularly so in times of turmoil.

Temporal structures and hidden leadership: Time on stage in a symphony orchestra
Turid Rødne
Universitetet i Stavanger

Time is an essential element in organizing a concert production. Using a Qualitative approach, and by drawing upon data from observation of concert productions, this article reflects upon how leadership in a symphony orchestra relates to time. The concertmaster and the conductor represent the top leadership on the stage, and they work on basis of a temporal structure, which runs from Monday morning until Thursday evening. Within this temporal structures, two other structures are in play. The Conductor is responsible for a musical structure and the concertmaster is responsible for the organizational structure. Based on these structures, they negotiate authoritative legitimacy to lead the orchestra through a concert production towards the performance. An interesting question is how the relationship between concertmaster and conductor changes from day to day during a production. Early in the process the ongoing negotiation is very visible and towards the day of the concert the negotiation is hidden, and invisible to the audience during the performance. There seems to be a correlation between timing of the fusion of these structures and the transition from a transactional form of interaction characterized by visual negotiation on the stage to an incorporative form of interaction where trust, reciprocity and common sense are established and where negotiations on stage has become invisible. Once incorporation is established and the interaction is agreed upon, the possibility of contemplation in the audience arises. Contemplation is a state of mind characterized by pure experience. At a certain point, and a certain time, in the concert production, musical and organizational structures merge and allow incorporation to emerge and contemplation among audience can take place in the concert hall. The concertmaster and the conductor are responsible for making these two structures blend as early as possible in the concert production. In this article, I suggest a correlation between the timing of merging these two structures and the experience of a satisfactory concert. The faster these structures merge, the better are chances of a successful concert.

Cultural entrepreneurship – myth or reality?
Sara Malou Strandvad
University of Groningen
The creative industries, comprising art as well as creative businesses, are praised in policies for providing innovative solutions to societal challenges and generating economic growth. Yet, a crucial aspect that is only scarcely addressed in these policies is the working conditions within the creative industries. As previous research has revealed, creative work is highly precarious due to job insecurity, low pay and mental health issues (Banks 2007, Gill 2002, McRobbie 1998).

As a strategy for solving the issue of precariousness in creative work, cultural entrepreneurship has been introduced to prioritise the ambition of generating revenue from creative activities. Yet, we know very little about how cultural entrepreneurship is carried out in practice. Two contrasting discourses exist on the topic of entrepreneurship in creative work: On the one hand, business studies propose that creative skills and management skills complement each other. To prove this point, management scholars have used exceptionally successful individual male artists’ careers as case studies of cultural entrepreneurship. Visual artists Ai WeiWei (Hjorth and Holt 2016) and Damien Hirst (Enhuber 2014), film directors Lars von Trier, Pedro Almodóvar and Nanni Moretti (Alvarez and Svejenova 2002, Alvarez et al. 2005), jazz musician Chet Baker (Bradshaw and Holbrook 2007), and Michelin cook Ferran Adrià (Svejenova et al 2007) have all served as illustrative examples. Alongside these studies of how creative success and business success can go hand in hand, the political agenda on creative industries builds on the argument that creative work is a productive form of self-realization.

On the other hand, statistical analyses show that the majority of graduates from art schools often do not manage to obtain an income from their artistic activities, which can sustain a living (Ball 2002, Ball et al. 2010). Analyzing this precarious situation, critical scholars with a Neo-Marxist orientation suggest that entrepreneurial creative work is essentially self-exploitation. The argument in this discourse on creative work is that the that the figure of the artist has been subsumed under neoliberal capitalism and now presents a role model for flexible and self-reliant employment (Boltanski and Chiapello 2005, de Peuter 2014, Kunst 2015). Whereas these two opposing approaches to entrepreneurship in creative work both thrive, we have very few balanced accounts that look at what cultural entrepreneurs actually do to sustain a living.

To start filling this gap, this presentation will present preliminary findings from an ongoing study of nascent cultural entrepreneurs, their work lives, and career strategies. The research participants have been selected based on their participation in the program Fundament to help young artists start their own businesses, an initiative launched by the municipality of Amsterdam in collaboration with the business support organization Cultuur+Ondernemen in 2017. The research aims to provide a thorough and empirically informed understanding of how cultural entrepreneurship is put into practice. With that aim, the presentation will focus on how to establish a more realistic portrayal of various career trajectories – both successful and unsuccessful – of nascent cultural entrepreneurs.

10 Kritisk välfärdsforskning

Kontaktpersoner: Marie Flinkfeldt (marie.flinkfeldt@umu.se), Stina Fernqvist (stina.fernqvist@soc.uu.se)

Hur är myndighetsutövning om våldsutsatta barn och unga möjlig i mångfald? En kunskapsöversikt
Osman Aytar
Mälardalens högskola
Bakgrund och syfte: I hösten 2015 startades tre delprojekt under benämningen ”KÖP-projekt – KunskapsÖversikter för Praktiker” av Mälardalens kompetenscentrum för hälsa och välfärd (MKHV) med uppföljningar under 2017 och 2018. Detta paper handlar om delprojektet med koppling till Individ- och familjeomsorg (IFO) inom socialtjänsten. Personer med utländsk bakgrund utgör en betydande del av IFO:s nästan alla verksamhetsområden, främst inom ekonomiskt bistånd, dygnsvård för barn och unga och bland hemlösa. Syftet med denna kunskapsöversikt är att visa vad forskning säger om myndighetsutövning inom området barn och unga med utländsk bakgrund som utsätts för psykiskt och fysiskt våld inom familjen. Huvudfokusområden för kunskapsöversikten är följande: Bedömningsinstrument, utredningsmetoder och samverkansmetoder.

Metod och material: Kunskapsöversikten är i linje med det som kallas ”scoping study” som handlar om en ”snabb översyn” över ämnesområdet. Huvudfokus ligger på referee-granskade artiklar i relevanta internationella och nationella databaser, men även andra forskningsrapporter och publikationer som har relevans för ämnet tagits med som komplement till vetenskapliga artiklar.

Resultat och analys: Resultatet visar att det inte finns specifika bedömningsinstrument, utredningsmetoder och samverkansmetoder enbart för våldsutsatta barn och unga med utländsk bakgrund, men det finns instrument och metoder som används i utredningar där även barn och unga med utländsk bakgrund är med i.

Slutsatser och implikationer: Eftersom det inte finns specifika bedömningsinstrument, utredningsmetoder och samverkansmetoder om myndighetsutövning inom området barn och unga med utländsk bakgrund som utsätts för psykiskt och fysiskt våld inom familjen kan tillgängliga instrument och metoder användas genom lämplig kompatibilitet och överförbarhet.

Nyckelord: Myndighetsutövning, barn och unga, våldsutsatthet, utländsk bakgrund, kompatibilitet

Negotiating risk and responsibility in conversations about violence with divorced and support-seeking fathers in Sweden
Linnéa Bruno
This paper is a work in progress, that aims to analyse negotiations of responsibility, power and representations of violence, in female social workers conversations with alleged or confirmed violent fathers. Empirically, the study draws from twelve structured, tape-recorded and transcribed interviews with support-seeking and divorced fathers. Formally, the objective of the interviews is to examine the need of support and to prevent legal disputes, by promoting cooperation between the parents. In addition, a formal task for these professionals is to detect risk by using an instrument – DOORS – which has never been used in Sweden before.
What happens when violence is disclosed or discovered? How does information on violence affect the professional project of examining the need of support and to promote cooperation between the parents? How do the fathers position themselves – and how do the social workers respond? Is gendered power challenged in the conversations – if so, how and what is the outcome?

Utveckling av kommunikativ praktik i välfärdsstatens frontlinje: Hur handläggare bemöter klienter som berättar om ekonomiska svårigheter
Marie Flinkfeldt
Umeå universitet
Den här studien använder samtalsanalys (conversation analysis, CA) för att undersöka hur handläggare i välfärdsstatens ‘frontlinje’ bemöter klienters berättelser om ekonomiska svårigheter. Det empiriska materialet utgörs av 366 ljudinspelade telefonsamtal till Försäkringskassans kundtjänst. Samtalen rör bostadsbidrag, som är en förmån som riktar sig till familjer och unga med låga inkomster.

Studien visar hur handläggarna navigerar det moraliska spänningsfält som präglar mötet med klienter, även i relativt opersonliga kundtjänstsituationer. Genom att prioritera ett service- eller uppgiftsfokuserat bemötande av klienternas stundtals mycket svåra berättelser om ekonomiska svårigheter framför mer empatiskt orienterade uttryck ‘gör’ handläggarna ‘kundtjänst inom socialförsäkringen’. På så sätt syns i materialet hur den institutionella kontexten inte involverar exempelvis relationsbyggande eller emancipatoriska inslag. I de allra flesta fall skapar ett serviceorienterat bemötande inte några väsentliga problem i samspelet mellan handläggare och klient. Man skulle kunna säga att det i de flesta samtalssituationer inte ‘behövs’ några explicita uttryck för empati för att samtalen ska flyta på ett bra sätt. Analysen visar dock hur det i vissa fall är påkallat att mer explicit ge uttryck för empati eller på andra sätt stödja klientens beskrivna erfarenheter av ekonomiska svårigheter. Det är framför allt när sådana beskrivningar utgör ett motstånd mot ett negativt serviceutfall. Genom att länka samman empatiska uttyck med tillhandahållandet av vidare service i någon form kan handläggaren i dessa situationer bidra till att bromsa vidare problemfokuserade beskrivningar från klientens sida – eller stävja en eskalerande konflikt – och avsluta samtalet på ett trevligt sätt.

Snarare än att uppmuntra handläggare att överlag bemöta klienters beskrivningar av ekonomiska problem med att uttrycka empati eller stöd, visar analysen att det är viktigt att beakta i vilken slags samtalssituation klienten berättar om sina ekonomiska problem och vad sådana beskrivningar fyller för funktion i samtalet. Resultaten belyser och stödjer den samtalsanalytiska kritik som riktats mot studier av institutionell kommunikativ praktik, där exempelvis användandet av vissa ord eller typer av frågor kan ses som ett mått på ‘good practice’. Problemet med sådana analyser är inte bara att de överlag har en alltför svepande behandling av detaljer i interaktionen, utan också att de saknar verktygen att särskilja mellan olika samtalssituationer. När sådan forskning används i kommunikationsträning riskerar de råd som ges inte bara att vara onyanserade – de kan också visa sig direkt felaktiga.

Välfärdstjänster på en kvasimarknad – familjens och marknadens förändrade roll för välfärdssystemets funktion
Henrik Loodin
Lunds universitet
Hälso- och sjukvården utgör en stor del av det Svenska välfärdssystemet, ett system vars grundläggande principer bland annat är universalism och solidaritet. Tjänsterna erbjuds av professionella aktörer utanför familjens reciproka relationer, baseras på individens behov och ska uppfylla vissa grundkrav oberoende marknadens nycker. Under större delen av 1900-talet har hälso- och sjukvården organiserats offentligt. Något som kritiserats för att vara kostsamt, byråkratiskt, paternalistiskt och ineffektivt samt inbjuda till överkonsumtion. Men, sedan slutet av 1980-talet erbjuds tjänsterna på vad som närmast kan beskrivas som en kvasimarknad – en marknad som varken är fri eller helt reglerad. På denna marknad finns det möjligheter att välja leverantörer som fritt kan etablera sig. Kvaliteten av tjänsterna mäts genom utkomst och på förhand definierade variabler för vad som är viktigt för verksamheten. Detta har medfört att de grundläggande principerna för och driften av den skandinaviska välfärdsmodellen utmanas.

För att förstå denna utveckling och dessa utmaningar utgår jag från hur äldrevården i en medelstor svensk stad organiseras. Det empiriska materialet består dels av enkäter med äldre som erbjudits en plats på ett äldreboende och dels av intervjuer med administratörer och biståndshandläggare. En analys av relevanta policy- och styrdokument såsom lagen om valfrihetssystem, lagen om offentlig upphandling och hälso- och sjukvårdslagen utförs även.

Det empiriska materialet visar att 1) familjens betydelse för individens välfärdsnivå är viktig, inte bara som ställföreträdande och obetalda vårdgivare utan de är betydelsefulla aktörer i en marknadsanpassning. 2) Relationen mellan leverantör av tjänst och mottagare reifieras då de äldre betraktas som kunder vilka i sig skapar ett ekonomiskt värde åt tjänsteleverantörerna. Materialet visar också att 3) det finns en konflikt mellan effektivitet och kvalitet i arbetet med att organisera köerna till lediga boenden och hantera andra begränsade resurser.

I och med att välfärdstjänster erbjuds på en kvasimarknad blir familjen och marknaden centrala faktorer för hur hälso- och sjukvården fungerar. Dock inte som garanter för bristande kvalitet utan något som bidrar till att understödja en avancerad form av ekonomisering av välfärdssektorn.

Unga nyanländas erfarenheter av etablering och integrationsprocesser
Ruben Marin
Högskolan Kristianstad
Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka och förstå vilka dimensioner som inverkar och påverkar en framgångsrik etablering och integration av unga nyanlända migranter. Utifrån samtal och kvalitativa intervjuer analyseras de resurser och tillgångar som de förfogar över och mobiliserar i komplexa etablering och integrationsprocesser. Som nyanlända behöver de inleda kontakter och möta myndigheter och institutioner såsom arbetsförmedlingen, vårdinrättningar, bostadsbolag, skolsystemet och arbetsmarknaden. Utfallet av dessa möten visar sig vara olika beroende på vilka resurser och tillgångar de har och hur dessa används i möten med myndigheter och institutioner. Begreppen socialt, ekonomiskt och kulturellt kapital, fält och habitus används i analysen för att förstå samspelet, komplexiteten och utfallet i etablering och integrationsprocesser. Analysen visar att nyanländas villkor påverkas av flera samverkande dimensioner. Social bakgrund, utbildningshistoria och etnicitet påverkar och strukturerar deras livsval. Utanförskap och stigmatisering påverkar också deras livsomständigheter. De nyanländas erfarenheter visar även att samspelet ser olika ut beroende på vilka aktörer de möter och interagerar med, inom vila fält möten utspelar sig i, hur institutioner och myndigheter bemöter dem och hur de normaliserar vissa föreställningar kring bemötandet.

Firstness and Otherness in the Swedish Drug Prohibition Regime
Oriana Quaglietta
Lunds Universitet
This paper will look at the ideological underpinnings of the Swedish welfare state in order to understand how drugs, drug users, and drug sellers have been conceptualised over the years. Ultimately, I will argue that when drugs are framed as a danger to society of foreign origin they become discursively connected to ethnic minorities in Sweden, also conceptualised as foreign and alien to society.

I start by introducing the concepts of firstness and otherness (Brade, 2015) and the demarcation line(s) between them in order to uncover racialized understandings of belonging and deservingness in the Swedish context. It can be argued that, by articulating a Swedish folk as one ethnically homogenous group in the “formative years” of the welfare state system, those who came in later, such as asylum seekers and economic migrants, sometimes but not necessarily phenotypically different, came to be implicitly perceived as outsiders. Once “the Other” is discursively constituted, a hierarchy of cultures is put into place as a way to enhance the primacy of Swedishness. In the presence of a racialized Other, whiteness becomes, then, the lightning rod to signal belonging to the in-group, a position greatly coveted by those on the margins of this fictional border (Hübinette & Lundström, 2015).

In parallel to this, it can also be argued that drugs have undergone a similar discursive development. At the turn of the 19th century, drugs were framed as a working-class problem: explanations for drugs misuse ranged from being individual and medical to being societal ills deriving from capitalism or even due the loss of religion/morality (Edman & Olsson, 2014; Tham, 1995, 2005). These understandings, however, started to change from the 1960s, and I would argue that this is also partially due to the subsequent migration waves towards Sweden, particularly during the 1980s (Gould, 1998). Understanding how the concepts of Swedishness, Firstness, and Otherness have been institutionalised in the Swedish welfare system also allows us to see how drugs have been articulated as “foreign” threats and how male youth from ethnic minority groups in Sweden have been impacted by this.

Finally, drawing from Barker’s (2017) concept of “benevolent violence”, this paper will also give some examples of how the current Swedish drug regime impacts the lives of women in the illicit drugs market as these emerge from my fieldwork with women drug-sellers in Sweden. By “benevolent violence” Barker (2017: 121) means ‘when coercive means are used to uphold the state’s benevolent or ameliorative goals and when the state’s ameliorative practices have violent effects’. State attempts to curb the demand and supply of drugs actually victimise the people it seeks to “help” and often obtain the opposite effect. Ultimately, I argue that the Swedish welfare system ensures its self-preservation by discursively constituting who is deserving and who is not, and punishes the non-deserving through its penal arm (Barker, 2017).

Keywords: Sweden, welfare state, firstness, otherness, drugs.”

Kategoriseringsarbete och relationella positioner: Socialt arbete med “ensamkommande barn och unga”
Ulrika Wernesjö
Linköpings universitet
I detta paper studeras kategoriseringsarbete i socialt arbete och skapandet av relationella positioner mellan socialarbetaren och den/de hen möter och arbetar med. Specifikt riktas ljuset mot socialt arbete med barn och unga som söker asyl utan föräldrar/vårdnadshavare, s.k. ensamkommande barn, och de kategoriseringar som aktualiseras och används där. 2006 övertog kommunerna ansvaret för boende och omsorg från Migrationsverket för de asylsökande barn som kommer till Sverige utan vårdnadshavare. Till skillnad från barn som placeras i hem för vård och boende (HVB) eller familjehem med stöd av Socialtjänstlagen(2001:453) på grund av eget beteende eller problem i hemmiljön, placeras ensamkommande barn vanligen snarast för att de saknar förälder eller vårdnadshavare fysiskt närvarande i Sverige. Samtidigt har bland andra Stretmo (2014) och Lalander & Raoof (2016) visat hur den här kategorin barn och unga tenderar att ses som en homogen grupp samt konstrueras som annorlunda, i termer av brist och som i behov av stöttning i vuxenblivandet och i relation till att etablera sig i Sverige.

Syftet med detta paper är att analysera kategoriseringar av ensamkommande barn och unga i socialarbetares utsagor utifrån ett intersektionellt perspektiv och diskutera hur de kan förstås som relationella konstruktioner. Med det menas att sättet på vilket barnet/ungdomen och hens behov beskrivs, även implicit inbegriper ett positionerande av sig själv som socialarbetare. intersektionellt Det empiriska materialet består av intervjuer av socialarbetare i svenska kommuner med mottagande av asylsökande som kategoriseras eller kategoriserats som ensamkommande barn, samt arbetsmaterial såsom Barnets bästa i centrum (BBIC). I studien intervjuades socialsekreterare som utreder barnet situation, beslutar om boende och insatser samt personal vid HVB och Utsluss som arbetar med barnen och ungdomarnas behov och situation i vardagen.

En tidig analys visar på en variation av kategoriseringar av barnen och ungdomar, men som alla gemensamt på olika sätt rör spänningen mellan barnen som utsatta, i behov av skydd och omsorg eller som resursstarka individer. Även om resurser och agens betonas riktas fokus mot barnets/ungdomens föreställda brister. Genom socialarbetarnas utsagor konstruerar de därmed även sin roll – att fostra och med olika tekniker styra in barnet/ungdomen på lära hen att ta ansvar för sitt eget liv.

Universella välfärdsinsatser för barns jämlika uppväxtvillkor
Jessica Wide
Högskolan Dalarna
Den svenska välfärdsstaten var under sin uppbyggnad och utveckling internationellt känd för sina omfattande universella insatser och sitt breda sociala skyddsnät för medborgarna. Staten har historiskt givits ett stort ansvar för generella och förebyggande insatser, i hopp om att antalet individer som hamnar i situationer som kräver omfattande individuella insatser ska minska. Under en lång tid har dock denna välfärdsstatsmodell förändrats i Sverige. Allt färre insatser har idag karaktären av att vara universella och allt fler insatser är istället individuella och sätts in först när stora behov föreligger.

Jag följer under tre år en kommuns ansatser att vrida om nuvarande arbetssätt med främst individuella och sent insatta insatser till att istället utveckla universella förebyggande insatser för alla barn som växer upp i kommunen. Syftet med kommunens utvecklingsarbete är att säkerställa alla barns rätt till likvärdig tillgång till hälsa, trygghet och lärande.

Initialt fokuserar jag på att genom deltagande observation och intervjuer med kommunens grupp av tjänstemän undersöka hur de hanterar denna vändning från individuella till universella insatser, och vad slags insatser det kan bli tal om i vår samtid med nutida utmaningar för att öka barns jämlika uppväxtvillkor.

På konferensen vill jag presentera mina preliminära resultat av deltagande observation under möten med kommunens ansvariga tjänstepersoner för utvecklingsarbetets första år, och intervjuer med ansvariga tjänstepersoner om deras reflektioner över arbetets möjligheter och svårigheter.

 

11 Kritiska studier och intersektionalitet

Kontaktperson: Marta Cuesta (Marta.Cuesta@hh.se)

Deaf Studies meets Disabilty Studies: Hearing Fragility and Invulnerability
Adams Lyngbäck
Stockholms universitet
Deaf Studies and Disability Studies have for many years been concerned with societal and cultural questions regarding deaf and hard of hearing children, youth and adults and their primarily hearing families. Innovations in medical technology in regard to deafness have centered on cochlear implants and is presented as containing the possibility of creating or restoring the use of sound in ways which were inconceivable to past generations. At the same time the acknowledgment of the official status of signed languages as vital for the attainment of basic human rights progressed in a growing number of countries.

The findings from a study of hearing parents of deaf children who use cochlear implants provide new insights into how adults, in relation to their child, become involved in social practices which introduce them to how the minority of Deaf sign language users exist, particularly in regard to their life conditions and life chances. The social issues mainly in focus from a very early stage in a hearing adult’s parenting a deaf child concern education, language use and belonging. This together with technological advances have prompted a range of questions regarding the deaf child’s belonging in multiple language communities, particularly regarding the virtues of sign language versus spoken language and available approaches to deaf education.

This paper will address the situation of deaf citizens and how societal structures and individual experiences are involved in social justice struggles and the contribution to scholarship is both empirical and theoretical utilizing the focus on the role of the body in thinking critically. This requires a disruption of how traditional views in education on critical thinking are conceptualized. The Deaf Studies/Disability Studies perspective not only draws on critical theories and intersectionality, it points to the necessity of directing the involvement of both a cultural perspective on being deaf with its interrogation of audism together with the lens of ableism. The development of ‘disability literacy’ about one’s own position in regard to other’s participation is presented as a way to make theoretical advances through the notion of ‘hearing fragility’, an expression of invulnerability to change through learning about how others exist.

Preliminary data from ethnographic field work in situations where adults are confronted with instances of social inequity concerning sign language use is presented from Swedish, Indian and Bangladeshi contexts. Included in the ethnomethodological approach is a comparison between a welfare states’ approach to deaf children and their families and the high involvement of NGOs in education in two Global South contexts, Jaipur, India and Dhaka, Bangladesh. Also, the global trend of rights-based approaches in neoliberal models of provision of social services is examined. The combination of new medical technology being made available, national sign languages being recognized and the marketization of educational systems are producing the space where these inequalities emerge as ethical dilemmas confronting individuals through the uncomfortable awareness of their ‘hearingness’.

Keywords: Deaf Studies, Disability Studies, disability literacy, audism, ableism, hearing fragility, invulnerability, ethnography

Inclusion and Exclusion at the Labor Market – an Intersectional Field Experiment
Magnus Bygren
Stockholms universitet
In the presentation, I will (i) describe the research project ‘Inclusion and Exclusion at the Labor Market – an Intersectional Field Experiment’ funded by the Swedish Research Council 2020-2023, and (ii) present preliminary results from a pilot in this project.

Our larger aim in the research project is to contribute to knowledge about the process behind labor market segregation and inequality, i.e. the process whereby individuals sort by ascribed characteristics – here gender and ethnicity – into job positions in the labor market. Analytically, segregation and inequality may be seen as generated by the combined outcome of decisions located at either the supply side or the demand side of the employer-employee match. Previous research has almost exclusively focused the supply side, because this is where data have been easily accessible. Consequently, we do not know much about whether, and if so why, employer decisions affect segregation and inequality.

In the social sciences, there is a great deal of theorizing about how structures involving the intersection of gender and ethnicity affect individual opportunities and life chances, and we will take these theories as a point of departure for a systematic test of how an individual’s gender and ethnicity creates and constrains their job opportunities.

We will employ a field experiment design, where we send equally merited job applications to real job openings in the labor market, randomly signaling the gender and ethnicity, and the combination of the two, of the job applicant. We will signal these factors in two ways, i) through the name of the job applicant and ii) through a description of the job applicant’s personal characteristics and leisure activities in the personal letter.

To develop and calibrate ii), we will gather large-scale text data, and use these to derive commonly held stereotypes and taken for granted characteristics of ‘men’, ‘women’, ‘immigrants’ and ‘swedes’, in an inductive data-driven manner. As a pilot in this larger project, we have analyzed posts on the web-based microblog platform Twitter to identify verbs, adjectives, nouns that co-occur with these categories.

The presentation will revolve around intersectional theories we have considered using to guide the larger field experiment, and methodological considerations in large-scale text analysis. Scores of signal strength and word clouds provide preliminary indications of the activities and characteristics considered as typical for the different groups.

Border epistemologies and participatory methods – Reflections on decolonial practices in migration research
Jelena Jovicic
Stockholms universitet
Sarah Philipson Isaac
Göteborgs universitet
Setting out from a decolonial and border epistemology, our research seeks to examine both portrayals of flight, as well as testimonies of seeking asylum in Sweden and encounters with the European border regime. Crucial to our research is transgressing the limitations of western knowledge production and methodologies, in which the researchers’ distance to its participants have been central in maintaining ‘objectivity’. We argue in line with Gloria Anzaldua (1987) in that distance has been utilized in research to make objects out of participants, and that this can be understood as an act of epistemic violence.

We argue that emotional entanglement is crucial to questions of social justice in field work, and that no responsible social justice methodology can function alongside ideas of objectivity. Methodologically, we draw on participatory methods as tools of decoloniality, as to have individuals’ experiences being told in their own voice, while simultaneously challenging the epistemic privileges attributed to the researcher. Participatory methods thus offer a framework that breaks from the idea that information is being extracted from the participants, rather, every participant in research is knowledgeable about their own life and thus involved in developing the research methods utilized to capture their experiences.

Working with both visual and oral testimonies we aim for our research to also enable spaces of oppositional looks and subversive spaces of existence. While we are in dialogue with people who have the experience of flight, we want to shift focus from the exotic categories of people that tend to dominate the filled of migration research, and rather study and challenge the mechanisms and power dimensions that construct these categories in the first place.

Keywords: border epistemology, decolonial epistemology, participatory methods, emotional entanglements, knowledge production.

“Let’s Frame it!” Messy Identities of second-generation Pakistani-Muslims in Sweden
Uzma Kazi
Lunds universitet
The central thesis of this paper is that identity work is messy, troublesome and complicated. Particularly for second-generation Pakistani-Muslims born, raised and shaped in Sweden who must navigate between Muslim-ness, Swedish-ness and Pakistani-ness at the same time. On account of this simultaneity of inter-cultural pluri-weaved identities, I argue that second-generation Pakistani Muslims lead culturally contested lives. In order to negotiate a ‘spoiled’ immigrant Muslim identity, compatible ‘frames of identity orientation’ have to be constructed. This is done by differentially accentuating meaningful aspects of each of the ‘cultural repertoires’ available to them to forge both roots and routes to integrate and belong to the country of their birth. Drawing on material from 42 life story interviews in three major cities of Sweden, this paper will firstly elicit what it means to be Swedish, Muslim and Pakistani through the voices of the informants.

Secondly, it will arrive at four key ‘frames of identity orientation’ to understand identity/identification processes assessed through experience, signification, representation and accountability. Thirdly, interviewee narratives emphasize relational dimensions of time (then/now), space (here/there), and the ‘other’ (us/them). These aspects are also knitted into the ‘frames of identity orientation’. Since identity is always in a state of ‘becoming’ and in ‘flux’, a shift in focus to one or all of the cultural repertoires as well as the attendant relational dimensions, makes it possible to switch in-between and across these frames depending on life-course changes and context-specific situations. Sometimes, outlier positions are also crafted. The informants use strong evaluations to make their case either with negative formulations or with affirmative formulations to reflect on their identificatory trajectory.

Circulating ‘Swedish Dads’: When art becomes nation branding
Sarah Mitchell
Linköpings universitet
In 2015, Swedish photographer Johan Bävman published a photobook entitled ‘Swedish Dads’. The objectives were “to describe the background to Sweden’s unique parental allowance [system]”. and “to inspire other fathers – in Sweden, and further afield – to consider the benefits of such a system” (Bävman, 2017). The book featured 45 photographs of Swedish fathers at home on parental leave with their young children. Most of these fathers came from Malmö – the area in the South of Sweden where Bävman was based. These images were accompanied by information about the father’s age, profession and how much parental leave he had taken. Many images were also accompanied by excerpts from interviews that Bävman had conducted with the fathers.

The Swedish Institute (SI) became interested in using this exhibition in relation to their work of promoting Sweden abroad. Part of this work includes developing the ‘Swedish brand’, including notions of Sweden as a ‘progressive’ country that values and actively promotes gender equality. In collaboration with Bävman, they adapted the exhibition and produced their own SI version of ‘Swedish Dads’.

In adapting the exhibition, SI wanted “to do justice to the image of what Sweden looks like today”. The SI version of ‘Swedish Dads’ contained 24 of Bävman’s original 45 images. In addition, SI asked Bävman to add a new photo of an ‘Afro-Swedish’ father to the collection, giving a total of 25 images. Many of the interview excerpts accompanying the images were also adapted for the SI exhibition. Since 2016, this exhibition has been circulated by SI, in collaboration with Swedish Embassies, to over 40 countries around the world.

Previous research has highlighted the connection between the SI version of ‘Swedish Dads’ and the promotion of the ‘progressive Sweden’ nation brand (Jezierska and Towns, 2018). Building on this research, I look at how the transformation of a local artistic project into an international, nation branding campaign becomes a site for constructing ‘Swedishness’.

In this presentation, I draw upon the material from both versions of ‘Swedish Dads’, as well as drawing on interviews that I conducted with Johan Bävman and the Communications Officer from SI.

I ask the following questions:
1) What is included or added to the exhibition?
2) What is removed or adjusted in the exhibition?
3) What remains absent from the exhibition?

My analysis of this material is influenced by Foucauldian discourse analysis, as well as visual discourse analysis (Rose, 2016). These theoretical and methodological approaches help me to explore how notions of ‘ethnicity’, ‘race’, ‘religion’ and ‘nationality’ are enacted, and how they become intertwined in complex ways through the adaptation of the ‘Swedish Dads’ exhibition for SI.

On the one hand, SI’s focus on notions of ‘diversity’ and ‘multiculturalism’ are in line with the image of Sweden as a ‘progressive’ country. However, I argue that closer analysis of the SI version of ‘Swedish Dads’ actually challenges this positive image. Indeed, I argue that the exhibition’s explicit focus on ‘gender equality’ acts to obscure some of the more troubling inequalities and forms of social exclusion in contemporary Swedish society.

Women in the Swedish Illicit Drugs Market: Intersections of Ethnicity, Class, and Gender
Oriana Quaglietta
Lunds Universitet
This paper will analyse how women become involved in the Swedish illicit drugs market, the various configurations of their involvement, and the meaning they have ascribed to their experiences using an intersectional perspective. The empirical material grounding this paper derives from fieldwork conducted with women who have bought and/or sold drugs in Sweden. Using different methods to place women’s own experiences and understandings at the centre of the analysis, I aim to cast some light on this rather understudied phenomenon.

Starting from a new conceptualisation of power and agency, I will argue that women’s experiences in this field run the full gamut between powerlessness and powerfulness. Power, which has mostly been understood as power over others, is now deconstructed to mean also power to accomplish objectives and as power [to build organisations and institutions] with others (Allen, 2016). I thus give a more nuanced recounting of how women may be both powerful and powerless in different moments of their lives in different ways. Furthermore, while I envision agency as a conditio sine qua non in the lives of all human beings, I argue that the material outcomes of exercising agency are necessarily mediated through location at the intersection of multiple axes of oppression. Together, these concepts allow us to understand better how differently located women are active in the illicit drugs market and how the nature of their involvement may be different depending on their position in society.

Finally, I will highlight how women’s experiences in the Swedish illicit drugs market can be located within the wider and historical context of the country’s drug prohibition regime and how the State, in all of its incarnations, is a powerful interlocutor in women’s involvement.

In so doing, I follow Choo’s and Marx Ferree’s (2010) suggestion to practice intersectionality at three different levels: group-centring, process-centring, and system-centring. I do so by placing the voices of a marginalised group at the centre of my research and by highlighting how their involvement in the illicit drugs market is necessarily mediated through their position on these axes of inequality. Then, I attempt to locate these experiences in the specific context of the Swedish drug prohibition regime with an eye to the inevitable power asymmetries contained therein. Finally, by drawing from Matsuda’s (1991, in Davis, 2008) “other question”, this paper will also interrogate the ways in which we can analyse women’s experiences through the lens of intersectionality in a more practical sense. Questions such as “where is the racism in this?”, “where is the classism in this?”, “where is the ableism in this?” can help us to tease out the cumulative and interactional character of positioning at the intersection of multiple axes of oppression.

Keywords: Intersectionality, gender, ethnicity, class, power, Sweden, drugs.

Klass och olika rasistiska logiker
Mikael Svensson
Södertörns högskola
Hur hänger klass och rasism samman? Mitt papper handlar om vilken betydelse klass har för olika negativa förhållningssätt till personer som anses ha utländsk bakgrund. Förhållningssätt ska här läsas handlingsorienterat. Fokus är om klasspositionen har någon betydelse för praktiker som kan beskrivas som rasistiska eller på andra sätt negativt särskiljande mot personer med ”utländsk bakgrund”. Fokus är alltså på de som står för praktikerna – inte de som drabbas av dem – och intresset för klass innefattar både om praktikerna ser olika ut i olika samhällsklasser och om orsakerna till praktikerna varierar beroende på klassposition. Frågan ä inte bara om utan också hur klass i sådana fall har betydelse för rasistiska praktiker på exempelvis arbetsmarknaden eller i det egna bostadsområdet.

Texten är en vidareutveckling av vissa delar av min nyligen avslutade doktorsavhandling Hur klass för skillnad (Svensson 2019). Det empiriska materialet består dels av observationer och kvalitativa intervjuer med tio personer i arbetarklasspositioner som bor i ett arbetarklassområde, dels av observationer och intervjuer med 10 personer i mer privilegierade klasspositioner som bor i ett socioekonomiskt fördelaktigare område.

Snarare än att diskutera vilken samhällsklass som är mer eller mindre rasistisk handlar analysen om att försöka förstå hur rasism kan ha olika klassade logiker. Baserat på en klassanalys av olika rasistiska praktiker – bestående av både marxistiska perspektiv som fokuserar på centrala motsättningar inom produktionsförhållandena och weberianska perspektiv som fokuserar på skillnader i marknadschanser och status – argumenterar jag för att rasism både kan ha olika orsaker och ta sig olika uttryck i olika samhällsklasser. Framförallt visar resultatet att olika former av exploaterande och korrigerande praktiker är vanligare bland intervjupersonerna med mer privilegierade klasspositioner, medan olika former av exkluderande och undvikande praktiker är vanligare bland intervjupersonerna med arbetarklasspositioner.

Den konsumerbara Andra – sociala processer kring ätbara djur
Josefin Velander
Karlstads universitet
Dagens samhälle präglas av en massproduktion av icke-mänskliga djur inom livsmedelsindustrin. Köttkonsumtionen blir alltmer ifrågasatt i dagsaktuella debatter utifrån miljö, hälsa och etik, medan det sällan talas om de varelser som konsumeras och deras livsvillkor. I sociologin har andra djur traditionellt setts placerats utanför samhälle och kultur i kategorin natur. Den mänskliga arten har enligt bl.a. Haraway utvecklats i relationer med andra arter och icke-mänskliga djur är på olika vis är inbäddade i ’mänsklig’ kultur och direkt påverkade av samhällsstrukturer. Studien tar sitt avstamp i ett kritiskt perspektiv på människors relation till det icke-mänskliga och hur detta samspelar med andra maktordningar.

Studien avser att undersöka hur icke-mänskliga djur inom livsmedelsindustrin görs ätbara genom olika sociala processer, samt hur makt- och dominansrelationer normaliseras och undangöms genom olika konstruktioner av etik i förhållande till ätande. Genom att titta på produktioner som konstruerar sig som etiska är avsikten att undersöka hur lantbruksdjurs situering som ätbara upprätthålls och reproduceras när den utmanas och ifrågasätts. De gränsdragningar som görs utifrån etik samspelar med en essentialisering och naturalisering av lantbruksdjurens position. Maktrelationer och exploaterande praktiker normaliseras och legitimeras av olika etiska formationer som i sin tur gör och situerar djuren. Ätbarhet skapas i materiellt-diskursiva praktiker där de icke-mänskliga djuren i utsagor och i kroppsliga praktiker blir de produkter de är avsedda för. Miljöetiska diskurser används för att legitimera och naturalisera djuren som ätbara men gör också något performativt med djuren, som blir miljövårdare och/eller resurser.

Djurvälfärd legitimerar och ger dominansrelationer en etisk inramning men koordinerar också de icke-mänskliga djurens görande och blivande, och speglar idéer kring djuriskhet. De icke-mänskliga djurens kroppar blir märkta utifrån idéer och klassificeringar som klistrar sig fast. De pådyvlas något utifrån men blir också till utifrån det. Detta analyseras utifrån Barads posthumanistiska performativitet och Cudworths ekofeministiska koncept anthroparchy som beskriver ett socialt system av mänsklig dominans i förhållande till natur och andra djur som privilegierar människan, som i sin tur beskärs av andra maktrelationer och system såsom kapitalism. 

Perceptions of masculinities, feminities and gender equality among young migrants in Berlin
Katarzyna Wojnicka
Göteborgs universitet
The aim of this paper is to investigate and analyze attitudes and perceptions of young men and women with migration background with regard to masculinities and femininities definitions, gender roles and gender equality. Basing on qualitative research methods such as: a) focus groups interviews (n=4); b) individual in-depth interviews (n=28); c) visual sociology – I will seek a representative understanding of the gender-related attitudes of young men and women with migration background. I argue that they are pivotal, but under-researched, social category in the studies on the nexus of (transnational) migration, integration and gender research. Investigating such issues is especially crucial in the context of current (public) debates where young migrant men are increasingly posed as problematic and violent, performing ‘dangerous foreign masculinity (Scheibelhoffer 2017) and in many cases as persons lacking an appropriate (European) system of values with regard to intimate and gender relations in particular as well as gender equality in general.

The paper will use data collected in 2019 among young (16-29) 1st and 2nd generation migrants living in Berlin, Germany. The research team focused on exploring issues of intimate relationships, gender relations and gender equality perceptions, with a special attention to religion – motivated attitudes. The sampling criteria were determined by the research goals and an intersectional approach (Collins & Bilge 2016). Informed by this approach, our intention was to choose a heterogeneous sample of research participants in terms of class, country of (family) origin, religious/ethnic background, type of sexuality and age. Participants were recruited with the assistance of local migration centers and offices as well as through local Non- Governmental Organizations (NGOs) working with these populations.

12 Kultursociologi

Kontaktpersoner: Anna Lund (anna.lund@sociology.su.se) Alison Gerber (Alison.gerber@soc.lu.se)

Framing a Crisis: A Cultural Explanation of Restrictive Asylum Policies
Dalia Abdelhady
Lunds Universitet

Focusing on 2015 as the year that brought a drastic shift in Swedish asylum policies, this paper traces media representation of the inflow of large numbers of refugees which was later coined the refugee crisis. Based on the analysis of frames in daily news articles from three major daily newspapers, I tackle the self-understanding of Sweden’s national identity and values, and the cultural justification of restrictive asylum policies. As such, my paper has two goals: first, it provides an overview of the ways the refugee crisis was constructed in the media and discusses the specific forms of representation associated with it. Second, it focuses on one of the several frames discussed, institutional responsibility, which is the most frequent frame in the selection of newspaper articles.

The analysis then proceeds to show that the refugee crisis was mostly discussed in terms of management and containment. Bringing the attention to the importance of governance, my argument is that the refugee crisis was constructed as a crisis in management that challenged regular functions of bureaucratic institutions. By staying away from moralistic arguments, mainstream media and political discourses of a refugee crisis were left largely uncontested and used to justify restrictive asylum policies. By constructing an institutional crisis rather than engaging in cultural or moral arguments, Swedish newspaper coverage facilitated a drastic shift in Swedish asylum policies that was faced with frail resistance.

Such a strategy can be taken for granted in a society where emphasis on organizational efficiency and pragmatic approaches to problems are held in high regard. Representing the inflow of refugees as an institutional crisis, however, has led to a drastic shift in asylum policies that were tacitly accepted on pragmatic grounds. I take this as the beginning of an explanation that despite drastic shifts in refugee policies, Sweden’s self-image as benevolent and generous can be left relatively intact and opposing voices mostly ignored.

The meaningful body: Towards a cultural sociology of the body
Trygve Broch
Anne Marie Champagne
Høgskolen i Innlandet
This presentation is an explorative attempt to outline some major fault lines in the cultural and social study of the body, and next to use the strong program in cultural sociology to outline a cultural sociology of the body.

Three lines of thought are at this stage identified: the social body, the performing body and the sensing body. The social body is a critical theory approach studying the embodiment of power relations and skill acquisition. In this approach, the body is both a landing site for social power, ideologies, and hegemonies, as well as a machine with the abilities to maneuver practice settings without the interruption of thinking. While this first perspective tends to override agency and meaning, the performing body highlights the body as an acting subject presenting ideas about the self and about groups. Such performances can conform or be deeply upsetting in the ways it plays out situational power struggles or oppressive social norms. Finally, the sensing body is a phenomenology of the body as a site from which we engage with the world. It is a starting point that allows us to join as both subject and object in recreating the existence of others and of other things.

Drawing on strong-program civil sphere theory, performance theory and iconic theory, we argue that meaning structures mediate and guide the bodily processes that we have outlined above. A cultural sociology of the meaningful body explores how folkloric myth, narratives and codes make the social body meaningful; how the performing body not only enacts or counteracts social power, but also civil and normative ideals of equality; and how the sensing body is guided by meaning structures in its sensory maneuvering of social and material landscapes. A cultural sociology outlines the body as a multidimensional medium for the constitution of society (Shilling, 2004) and argues that as bodies are shaped by meaning they, in turn, act to shape social life through their presence of meaningful materiality.

Agency and imagined futures of the Russian youth
Ekaterina Pavlenko
National Research University Higher School of Economics

Lessons in Football – How is historical ethnography possible?
Dominik Döllinger
Uppsala universitet
Practice theory and cultural sociology have been good bed fellows at least since Bourdieu. However, since the so-called ‘practice turn’, social practices tend to be studied predominantly through ethnographic methods, from participant observation to carnal approaches. What post-Bourdieu practice theorists thereby often leave out is a thorough investigation of their historical emergence which had been a focal point in Bourdieu’s studies. In doing so, they are able to make up for weaknesses in his theory, yet, crucial aspects may remain unfound and leave us with an insufficient understanding of the respective case.

Utilizing archival material from British newspapers between 1800 and 1900, I will show how social practices can be analyzed in a way that is ethnographical and historical at the same time without neglecting the important theoretical and methodological developments of recent years. The empirical case study that will help me to illustrate my point is (association) football. I will demonstrate how the way in which football is played today can only be sufficiently understood when it is investigated from a historical perspective.

Controlling the Uncontrollable: Experiences and Consequences of Reproductive health apps
Lina Eklund
Uppsala universitet
This presentation will present a recently initiated project focused on so call digital smartphone applications for reproductive health (RHAs). These RHAs are today big business. Millions of people use them to track sexual health, fertility and reproduction by uploading highly intimate health data, e.g. periods, hereditary diseases, intercourse details, or fetal health. Linked to this researchers speak of a “device-ification of mothering” (Johnson 2014, 346); and indeed, there are more apps available for pregnancy than any other medical topic. From conception, to post-partum health, the apps cover every aspect in-between.

In comparison to reproductive technology used by healthcare professionals, RHAs differ in three key ways:
1) they are operated by patients themselves
2) they are often not made or approved by any state-funded official healthcare system
3) they gather and monetize personal data in opaque ways.

Research so far indicate that a majority of pregnant women use RHAs, yet we know hardly anything about their effect on personal experiences of reproductive health or on healthcare; or indeed what happens with the intimate data that these apps log. In the project we have begun and aim to gather both interviews and survey data in order to ask: What role do RHAs play for men and women’s experiences of reproductive health? How do RHAs affect healthcare professional and patient interaction? What norms do commercially developed RHAs support, and how is personal data treated?

Investigating RHAs from three angles–user experience, healthcare professional’s perspectives and industry standards–this project provides knowledge on a severely understudied topic. Increasing understanding of RHAs role for individuals, for healthcare and sheds light on the critical contemporary challenge of data privacy in the context of intimate data.

The presentation will focus on results from interviews with midwives and their changing work identities in the wake of RHAs and digital information in general. Preliminary results suggest the interviewed midwives reported that basically all their patients in fertile age uses reproductive health apps, in particular during pregnancy, but also for menstrual tracking and identifying fertile periods (whether to become or avoid pregnancy). However, they also reported that there are no official guidelines of how to advise patients on the use of RHAs, and that they feel insecure about the technological and medical aspects of their usage. The midwives discussed their own changing work roles due to the increased availability of health information in digital formats, for example by being guides and pointing out where to find “good” information online, rather than being the providers of said information themselves. This indicates the important role digital information sources has for patients and healthcare professionals today.

Fluctuation. Timespace in waste water management
Tora Holmberg
Uppsala universitet
This paper reports from an ongoing project examining the organization of waste water and food waste management in Swedish municipalities. Through the approach of “trash-tracing”, we follow the transformation of values, from “”shit”” flushed down the toilet to its end-up market commodities: biogas and fertilizer. Following the human and non-human “waste workers”, we examine timespace “fluctuations” in waste flows in the circular economy.

In municipal as well as commercial promotion of sustainable futures, sewage management is often represented as a straightforward cycle: from worthless dirt flushed down toilets to economic and ecological valuables, such as bio-fertilizers, back to food production and new consumption. Questioning these neat processes, the theoretical figure of “urban metabolism” points at some related messiness (e.g., Gandy, 2004; Kaika, 2015). Infrastructures are made of assemblages of technological and natural agents that transform rather than simply transport matter such as for example water. These assemblages, in turn, are spatially anchored and take place through the urban metabolism. Infrastructural topographies of waste water management include for example the localization of pumps and water plants, and the dimensions of sewage pipes. Likewise, smooth infrastructural processes are temporally organized. Waste water flows are disrupted by fat occlusions. Flows may be intense due to water flows, or slowed down when less used, eg. by night. We ask how flows are organized in terms of timespace and with what effects.

Using the figure of urban metabolism as a theoretical backdrop for our analysis, we wish to articulate the various kinds of fluctuations that come to play a role in how waste water management in achieved. We use the concept of fluctuation to point both to the flux and variability in the waste flows, and as a complementary theoretical figure to make sense of the precariousness of waste management infrastructures. As such, our paper is an attempt to engage with conversations about waste flows and the various flows of waste, analyzed from the perspective of fluctuations, e.g. overflows, slowdowns, leakages, interruptions and disruptions, etc. This move complicates the image of smooth transition of matter, inherent in circular accounts of recycling and waste flows, by stressing not only the transformative work of technological and natural agents, but also the maintenance and repair work that need to be put in place for fluctuations to be accommodated in waste management.

Societal structures, solidarity and recognition as displayed in the stories of young people seeking for asylum in Finland
Iida Kauhanen
University of Oulu
Many unaccompanied asylum seeking children and youth (hereafter unaccompanied children and youth) have experienced being misrecognised by stereotypical, sometimes racist, views by local people, professionals, co-workers, or bosses (eg. Bitzi & Landolt, 2017). Further, the structures and systems tend to cluster all the unaccompanied children and youth declaring for example their common needs, strengths or resilience. Instead of being put in a box, these young people wish to be seen as such: young human beings who are valuable members of their communities (eg. Herz & Lalander, 2017).

This paper discusses solidarity on the perspective of recognition theory conceptualised by Nancy Fraser (2000) and Axel Honneth (1995a, 1995b, 2012) among other scholars. Recognition focuses on social justice by aiming to deconstruct the normative structures that define the borders of existence for people. Solidarity in recognition theory is an aim to be part of a caring community where everyone can contribute to constructing a shared experience of good and moral living in an environment where all people are seen as equally valued agents and where their contributions are appreciated and accepted.

The paper draws on research conducted during the year 2018 in participation with 13 young people, who once arrived Finland as unaccompanied children and youth. The material for this research has been produced with the young people through narrative in-depth interviews and ethnographic time-spending. The following question is explored: From the perspective of recognition theory, how does the presence of unaccompanied children and youth within the communities they live in, make acts of solidarity visible?

Online photo sharing, social networks and self-representation among middle age graffiti writers
Malcolm Jacobson
Instagram has become the platform of choice for photographic representation and preservation of ephemeral and often illegal graffiti writing. Tags are internalized parts of graffiti writers’ self-identities. Simultaneously tags are externalized through use of techniques such as Instagram. The idea that graffiti should be experienced first-hand – read from public walls – without mediatization now seem to be a nostalgic idealization. Social media has become an integral part in the play through which graffiti writers seek recognition.

Drawing on cultural sociological perspectives and qualitative network analysis this paper investigates the life courses of graffiti writers and the meaning of graffiti for its aging and now middle age practitioners. The paper outlines an ethnographic study were the use of Instagram is studied from the users’ side of the screen. How do participants in a materially very concrete analogue youth culture during the 1980s and 1990s construct collective memories and social cohesion through digital social media in 2020?

Through interviews and participant observation this study will investigate reflexive decisions and constructed subcultural meaning of graffiti writers when they post, view and comment online representations of graffiti. This will be combined with a network approach where the development of subcultural community is studied through interviews while participants draw the evolution of their ego network from when they started with graffiti in the 1980s or 1990s until present time, here the merge of a site specific urban network into a global digital social media network will be of particular interest.

The paper will investigate how graffiti is related to discourses on art, crime and youth. Further, it will examine how the subcultural relates to social constructions of identity, aging, gender, taste, friendship and recognition.

The role of music in integration and belonging. Hip-hop sound from the suburbs of Stockholm; Female artists with a foreign background
Sjors Joosten
Stockholms universitet
In 2017 one out of four people (24.1%) living in Sweden was considered to have a foreign background . While this percentage is most likely only going to increase, and thus will affect the demographic consistency of Sweden, that what is considered to be ‘’Swedishness’’ (what it takes to be a Swede) is not up for change. The discourse around ‘’Swedishness’’ is mainly kept constant by white-heritage Swedes, and is unlike the Swedish population not dynamic at all. In addition to that re-regulated housing policies and other neoliberal reforms have come into place which caused an increase in spatialized social inequalities in the Swedish big cities that therefor now belong to the most segregated in Europe (Thörn & Thörn, 2017, p. 295). This makes the challenge for a good integration very difficult. Especially the feeling of belonging in this Sweden, and being a Swede, is not developing for that huge part of the population that has a foreign background.

In Stockholm most segregated areas and neighborhoods are mainly inhabited by those people with a foreign background, because even though the Swedish economy has stabilized, the processes of marginalization, discrimination, and exclusion are made permanent which made Sweden a country of ‘us’ and ‘them’ (Sernhede, 2007). In these neighborhoods there is a certain extend of uncertainty and alienation in relation to the rest of society. This makes the question of integration quite difficult, while being excluded and alienated from Swedish society, they still want you to participate in that society. As Sernhede (2007) argued is that many of the residents in the suburbs create a sense of belonging and identity with their own neighborhood and their own kind, where everyone is an alien in the world outside their own area.

Coming to the research, music is an important means for social expression, especially for members of minority groups. It allows people to share their experience, and talk about grief, pain, joy, without directly having to lead to protest or political action. It can be the voice of people who otherwise have no voice that can be heard (Martiniello, 2019). That is exactly what many hip-hop artists of the Stockholm suburbs want. They want to create awareness of their situation, which they share with many other people living in similar conditions. While the Swedish population is so dynamic and diverse, the road towards integration does not represent all Swedes.

As Lacatus (2009) argued is that many artists with a foreign background condemn segregation and ethnic discrimination, and that they fight to redefine the discourse and notion of what is Swedishness to eventually be able to incorporate non-heritage Swedes as a natural component, rather than a foreign objectified sociocultural other.

This research wants to create an understanding of how female hip hop artists with a foreign background elaborate on their past- and present living situation by using music. By interviewing them (using life course analysis) and focusing on how music gives them the tools to make their particular situation more visible for the greater audience, I would like to understand the relation of their input as artists in society and how integration and the sense of belonging in Sweden works for people with a foreign background living in the suburbs of Stockholm. With their thoughts, ideas, and actions in the music industry the aim is to look at what possibly needs to change to create a sense of belonging to Swedish society, and how integration can change. At least, if that is the final goal?

Conceptualising Folk Devils: On Classification Struggles, Social Types and Figures in Moral Panic Research
Elias le Grand
Stockholms universitet
In more than four decades, moral panic studies have made important contributions to sociological research, notably to the study of social identities and cultural processes. But whilst scholars in this strand of research have subjected the moral panic concept to much fruitful critical interrogation and development, its twin concept, the folk devil, has been surprisingly undertheorised and rarely subjected to reflexive analysis. In his original formulation, Stanley Cohen conceptualised the folk devil as a particular social type, one where a group or category of individuals in society are labelled as ‘visible reminders of what we should not be’ (Cohen, 2002 [1972]: 2).

This paper attempts to extend Cohen’s brief discussion of the folk devil as a social type in order to clarify the meaning and role of this concept in moral panic research. To this end, it draws on Bourdieu’s research on classification to conceive of the folk devil type as a particular social identity position formed through classificatory struggles over value and recognition between different social groups. Moreover, the paper draws a distinction between the concept of social type and the related notion of figure. During moral panic processes certain figures may or may not be positioned as folk devils. The key arguments of the paper are illustrated by means of a case study on the contested societal reactions to the figure of the middle-class hipster in a gentrified London district.

Three modes of status framing the production of child culture
Ylva Lorentzon
Stockholms universitet
This presentation is about status, cultural policy and New public management within the production of performing arts for children and young people. My dissertation (Lorentzon, 2018) focuses on how the everyday practice is organized, how status-power influences the practice, and lastly, the potential relevance that the everyday practice within the production of performing arts has for understanding child culture as an artistic field. The dissertation is based on a year-long ethnographic fieldwork, mainly observations and interviews. The aim of the thesis is to explore the everyday practice within the production of performing arts and problematize what is at stake in the practice with regard to child culture as an artistic field.

This presentation however focuses especially on the three modes of status apparent within the production and its relation to cultural policy and New public management. The everyday practice is organized around an artistic objective that is simultaneously artistically and pedagogically oriented. This split orientation of the objective of the production for children and youth sets the section apart from the other artistic sections within the theater. The artistic objective generates important status for a production aimed at children and young people. However, compared to other sections within the institution, this section has differing material and economical prerequisites, which complicates, and sometimes obstructs, the process of asserting the artistic status of the production for young audiences within the theater. The weaker material and economical arrangements underlines the importance of social status and the maneuvering of power-relations within the theater, in order to ensure artistic, technical and material resources. People within the production for young audiences need to keep up good and positive social relations to keep their productions and projects going.

The everyday practice displays a firm artistic hierarchy, which is accentuated by the fact what is understood as artistic rather than pedagogical or technical in nature always carries a higher status within the practice. This is a significant obstacle to work around in the production for the young audiences since large parts of their production are presented as pedagogical rather than artistic projects, and therefore generate lower artistic status. Yet, apart from the social and artistic status apparent within the production, a third kind of policy related status is being generated by the presence of cultural polity and the New public management way of measuring progress and results within theater production as a whole, and this third kind of status works directly in favor of the production for children and young people. The production for young audiences is a central part of legitimizing the production of the theater regarding cultural policy, state bureaucracy and funding. Its production therefore upholds a kind of policy related status within the institution.

The weaker power position and lower artistic status of child culture creates great dependency for child culture within the theater. It also shows child culture and pedagogy as deeply intertwined phenomena, with pedagogy both diluting and obscuring the production of artistic status while simultaneously generating possibilities for the policy related kind of status within the institution. The development of cultural policy objectives and the New public management logic of measuring artistic production by counting it numbers has been of great concern within the field of cultural policy research, especially in the Nordic countries with their systems of public funding of the arts. My research however shows a vivid and important other side of this development within cultural policy.

School desegregation policy: increasing equality and expanding solidarity in multicultural schooling
Stefan Lund
Stockholms universitet
A critical mass of studies in Sweden show that residential segregation in combination with school choice polices lead to increased ethnic school segregation (cf. Dahlstedt 2018, Dovemark & Holm 2017, Bunar & Sernhede 2013, Trumberg 2011, Andersson et al. 2010). This trend is seen most vividly in large and mid-sized cities (cf. Lund 2015 Ambrose 2016, Kallstenius 2010, Lidegran 2009). However, as an unintended and unplanned outcome of the ‘2015 migration crisis,’ ethnic school segregation in Sweden is no longer solely an urban phenomenon. 30-years after the reform that changed the transfer of responsibility for education from central government to the municipalities, actions are taken in rural regions to implement desegregation policies in order to meet the goals of equality put forth by the Swedish School Law.

In this paper I will discuss one municipality where desegregation policies target children in public primary schools through school mergers and bussing. Children who previously studied at three F-6 schools are bused to two F-3 schools and one 4-6 school. The aim of this paper is to investigate the ways in which politicians, officials, headmaster’s and teachers work to make this policy initiative of school desegregation possible.

This paper is built on document analysis (pre-investigations and evaluations of the desegregation policy) and interview data with three politicians, two officials, five headmasters and thirteen teachers. It draws on Jeffrey C. Alexanders theory of immigrant incorporation, which builds on the assumption that democratic societies include a civil sphere that “…defines itself in terms of solidarity, the brotherly and sisterly feeling of being connected with every other person in the collectivity” (Alexander & Tognato 2018: 17). In such perspective, the notion of performing change through desegregation policy could be viewed as an action of solidarity. Of working for “the expansion of the discourse of liberty” (Alexander 2006: 551).

The results demonstrate that both structural and cultural conditions are making the policy initiative of desegregation possible. Firstly, there is just one free-school in the local school market, which reduces the options of “white flight”, which in turn empowers the initiative of desegregation policy. Secondly, this region has a long history of labor migration that have come to influence the community’s beliefs and experiences of immigration as a positive part of economic and cultural development. Thirdly, the educational politicians in the municipality have, independently of their political affiliation, come to inherent a similar and unifying image of the purpose with schooling. Fourthly, the results indicate that school desegregation policy started at a grassroot level, with a unifying belief among school actors that ethnically heterogeneous school cultures improve the school’s ability to fulfill the Swedish School Law´s overall objectives. Namely, to ensure that all children are given equal opportunities for personal knowledge development, counteracting prejudice and intolerance and developing students’ understanding of society’s cultural diversity. In order to accomplish this task, they implicitly or explicitly possess their engagement and public performances towards the necessity of an expansion of the horizons of solidarity. They are in other words committed to a belief that schooling is or can be a vital part of a civil repair. Thus, the results show that what Alexander (2011) calls a re-fusion of meanings, is critical in making sense of the policy and its consequences for the stakeholders in the process of re-organizing primary education in order to accomplish desegregation policy.

Staging Migration: Rhetoric, Representation, and Reception in Swedish Children’s Theater
Anna Lund
Stockholms universitet

Since the “long summer of migration” (also known as the 2015 “refugee crisis”) the field of performing arts for children in Sweden has displayed a growing interest in staging migration while elaborating new artistic strategies and modes of participation. Newly arrived children – both refugees and others – share the stage-audience encounter with children born in Sweden while meeting and interacting with content including the staging of escape routes, new homes, multiple homes, homelessness, identities, belonging, and experiences of being “other”. This paper is a theoretical elaboration of the potential for children’s theater to stage an inclusive Sweden, simultaneously we are aware of how social boundaries between “us” and “them” may be reproduced as an unintended consequence. A cultural sociological frame is utilized in order to advance our knowledge on cultural aspects of the meaning and challenges of migration and integration. Empirical illustrations are examples from the rhetoric’s of cultural policy documents; representations of stories, bodies, and languages on the stage; and attention to the audience reception of staged migration.

Att göra vänskap
Lina Lundström
Stockholms universitet
Detta papper intresserar sig för högstadieelevers relationsarbete och i synnerhet deras sätt att göra vänskap. Mer specifikt analyseras elevernas relationsvardag utifrån hur sociala och symboliska gränser dras, utmanas och upplöses. Genom att anta ett kultursociologiskt perspektiv på elevernas iscensättande av vänskap har det blivit möjligt att se hur olika kulturella ideal och även var och när vänskapen iscensätts, kan kopplas till social makt som i sin tur skapar inkludering och exkludering. Papperet visar att elevernas relationsarbete är ett hårt arbete vilket inbegriper face work, försvarande av gränser och ifrågasättande av invanda sociala ordningar. Detta arbete lyfter fram de frågor som är centrala i elevernas formande av identitet(er), vem de är inför dem själva men också inför andra. För att kunna få en förståelse för elevernas vänskap, som utgår från ett kultursociologiskt perspektiv, har jag samlat data genom videoupptagningar, observationer och intervjuer.

Being constructed civil is a fine line
Henrik Nilsson
Linnéuniversitetet
How Muslims are treated and how their demands are negotiated in the civil sphere vary based on context (Bonikowski 2017). The discourse on Muslims and Islam has transformed from dealing with norms (rules that prescribe correct behavior) to encompass values (shared ideas of good/bad) (cf. Alexander 2012; Voyer 2013; Brubaker, 2017) supporting liberal principles (gender quality and protection of sexual minorities).

This paper describes how Anwar, a school principal in a Muslim-profiled independent tax-funded primary school, is negotiating and working to change the cultural meanings that define Muslim identities. Specific an independent Muslim profiled, tax-funded primary school in Sweden. When Anwar opened the public tax-funded Islamic profiled school Jibril school it was criticized and labeled with qualities such as lacking inequality, “segregating” and being a threat to “diversity.” The local newspaper’s journalist reported that “for most of the day students hear a deficient language since everyone’s bilingual.” The journalist did use all kinds of things to pollute the school and Muslims identity, implying it was financed by “blood money” from Saudi Arabia. Giving the role as spokesman Anwar had to answer questions such as the nature of the Taliban.

Nevertheless, instead of describing the Taliban’s detestable actions and dehumanizing them like so many others would do, Anwar explained: To some degree, they are misunderstood and misled. They never got to fix their mistakes. I like the Swedish way of looking at people who do something wrong – that you try to ask why and such.

In opposition to the journalist’s indirect coding of the Taliban as “pure evil,” Anwar turned it into a question of understanding as he linked it to the “Swedish way” of “asking” about something one does not understand. Anwar was maybe due to his way of responding to polluting narratives described as “thoughtful,” “well-formulated,” “clear,” “persistent,” “open,” and as someone who “does not let himself be provoked”. When asked if he was brave, he answered in the positive: “Yes, I believe so. Pretty much. I’m aware of the risks, but it’s essential that you stand for what you think is right. Like Olof Palme. Like Anna Lindh did. But I don’t compare myself with them”.
Successful social performance is not merely a matter of character but also linking oneself, in this case, to Swedish icons. Both Olof Palme and Anna Lindh have gone from being simply politicians to politicians who symbolize peace, bravery, and independence (Eyerman 2001). At the same time, however, Anwar showed his awareness of the risk of hubris (cf. Smith & Howe 2015).

What shapes symbolic and discursive forms for incorporation isn’t merely social facts instead, in this case, it is more how social factors are represented – that is, how social facts such as signs are woven “into chains of already powerful symbols” (Alexander 2017: 40) – that has significance for the incorporation of Muslims and Islam. Anwar’s work for the recognition of Muslims and Islam in Sweden thus implies not only normative hopes but also real things in the world where semiotics and social structure and values connect in the fight for recognition about “better placement inside the symbolic boundaries of civil society” (Alexander, 2007, p 29). A merging of meaning systems that expands feelings and opinions about the societal “we” is difficult, but not impossible — being constructed as civil or anti-civil is a very fine line.

Riding School Rhythms: Humanimal Performances and Species Melancholy
David Redmalm
Mälardalens högskola
Riding school pupils are taught how to use force and equipment to control horses, while they at the same time also need to adapt their bodies to the rhythms of horses’ different gaits. Through these animal performances and this mutual disciplining of bodies, riding school pupils strive for the perfect moment of riding, during repetitive riding lessons, week after week. This study, based on interviews with riding school pupils and observations of lessons and interactions in stables at three riding schools in Sweden, focuses on these moments, and the powers and normative frameworks surrounding and enabling them.

Pupils describe riding at its best as a nonreflective and embodied experience, and as an escape from everyday human existence, characterized by stress, anxieties, an overemphasis on the cerebral, and a negligence of one’s body. At the same time, this escape presupposes a subordination of horses through methods and organizational devices with which riders feel increasingly uncomfortable as they become more and more experienced. This dilemma can be described as species melancholia. Being human means to neglect one’s “animal” characteristics. Riding is a way to reconnect with these characteristics, but for this to happen, a clear division between human and horse needs to be established, both symbolically, through discourses, and practically, through the organizational control of the riding school. This explains the fact that in interviews and informal conversations, riding school pupils repeatedly return to melancholic reflections concerning horses’ conditions in riding schools.

Individualization Revisited: Explaining Swedish Paradoxes Using Insights from Cognitive Sociology
Jakob Strandell
Uppsala universitet
Individualization is commonly recognized as one of the most impactful processes of change in late modern societies, and has been attributed massive demographic shifts in the West since the 1960’s. Yet the individualization theories social scientists rely on have been repeatedly criticized for their sweeping assumptions, vague definitions, and inability to account for real-life variance. These theories may be poorly suited for understanding the shifting cultures of 21st century societies, but despite these criticisms, we have seen little theory development. To illustrate the limitations of past theory, the present paper compares four empirical studies of life in late-modern Sweden, one of the most individualized countries in the world. These studies examine ‘individualization paradoxes’ where traditional gender roles and power-relations, refamilization, increasing marriage rates and collective living not only coexist with, but are made possible by, high individualization. The paper brings the arguments of the four studies together by applying insights from cognitive sociology, and suggests a realistic conceptualization of individualization—what it is and what it does—capable of accounting for ‘paradoxical’ observations.

Communal Intimacy in Collective Housing: Formalization, Egalitarianism, Exchangeability
Maria Törnqvist
Uppsala universitet
Can there be intimacy when relationships are decentered? Or rather, how can we make sociological sense of a sociality of closeness grounded in the formalized logic of a partially organized space? This article uses collective housing, a voluntary form of shared living positioned in between the conventional intimacy sphere and public life, to explore the relation between the organized and the intimate. Combining multi-sited observations and interviews, the study reveals collective housing to be fairly depersonalized homes characterized by residential transition and formalization. Rather than addressing the dwellings in terms of detachment, however, the article demonstrates that they are exchange(st)able structures with existential bearing. It is through, not despite, the partially organized framework of daily chores and routines that intimacy emerges. Grounded in these findings, the article calls for a reconceptualization of intimacy outside of its traditional contexts and proposes the term ‘communal intimacy’ to conceptualize a sociality of closeness that is bound not to exclusively defined relationships but to a relational infrastructure. In collective housing dwellers relate and rely not primarily on interdependent dyads but on the strength of many weak ties.

Normativity, Culture and Cognition
Andrea Voyer
Stockholms universitet

“Different Through the Eyes of Others”: Christian and Muslim Youths Negotiating Belonging and Difference in Contemporary Sweden
Åsa Trulsson
Linnéuniversitetet
Religion, religious desires, and motivations have been recurrent themes in recent debates on diversity, multiculturalism, and integration in Sweden. Ambivalent and sometimes contradictory claims meet in these debates, which also bring questions on the role of religious traditions in liberal democracies to the fore. Moreover, discussions often have difference at its core, as the imagined religious other is associated with irrationality, violence, dependency, and restrictive gender and sexual regimes. Even though Sweden is highly secularized and also increasingly diverse when it comes to religion, religion still seems central in determining who is a “worthy” member of the community.

Further, these ambivalences also raises questions on how religious motivations, desires, and identities are negotiated and disciplined in everyday lives. This presentation explores such issues through the perspectives of young self-identified Christian and Muslim youths in contemporary Sweden. By drawing on the young people’s stories on the intersection between religion and daily life, I discuss how stigmatizing narratives affect young people’s behavior, sense of self, and the possibilities of inhabiting and feeling at home in the world. The everyday spaces of the young people are often designated as secular and marked by post-protestant sensibilities, which make religious bodies visible and at times, out of place.

However, the presentation also shows the multifaceted sources for the young people’s identities that come to transcend simple designations, thus challenging any notion of reified Muslim or Christian experiences. Further, it also explores how religion and transnationalism can become sources of empowerment, that negotiate and ultimately context dominating narratives of religion and belonging in contemporary Sweden.

13 Kunskaps- och vetenskapssociologi

Kontaktperson: Anders Hylmö (anders.hylmo@fek.lu.se) och Per Wisselgren (per.wisselgren@umu.se)

Eating and other wasteful “misuses” of biogas raw materials; Reconceptualising surplus and leakage in the circular economy
Sebastian Abrahamsson
Claes-Fredrik Helgesson
Uppsala universitet
The production of biogas using food waste is a key activity in achieving a circular economy. Food waste, we are told, is not actually waste but a resource. Yet, this production relies on a somewhat disturbing tension in which food waste is both wasteful and something necessary for achieving circularity. If food waste is a valuable resource, why should we avoid letting foods go to waste? In this paper we would like to critically explore this tension by re-framing the production of biogas as a core use of food. Which underlying tensions in the circular economy is unveiled if we see biogas production as the main usage of food?

We venture that this reconceptualization provides a new way to articulate, and interrogate, the surplus logic of the so-called circular economy. Using empirical vignettes from interviews and observations at biogas production facilities in three Swedish cities, this paper is an attempt to rethink the role of food and waste in the circular economy.

In our analysis, we map out three distinct “misuses” of food in the circular economy of biogas production: leakages (e.g. consumers that either eat their food or fail to recycle their leftovers); detours (e.g. food that is made available and purchased, in excess, in supermarkets rather than sent immediately to biogas production facilities); collisions (e.g. struggles vis-à-vis legal definitions of food waste that threaten the continued supply of raw material for biogas production). Rather than asking what consumers, restaurants, supermarkets and food producers could do to stop food from going to waste, our mapping analyses what is needed to maintain biogas production, and make the supply of raw material more efficient.

This mapping has many counterintuitive features. Surely food is made for eating and turning food waste into biogas is a useful addition to make use of the waste? While our analysis is intended to provoke thinking about the common trope of “waste as resource”, our point is that our re-framing exercise also highlights tensions in the circular economy that are not as readily visible when seeing it in this latter way. We therefore conclude by sketching some lessons about the current state of food waste circularity in terms of a logic of excess and recycling as re-appropriating this excess. This leads us to the question of what it is that makes these contradictions less visible when looking at biogas production in the received way.

The politics of a scientific controversy – pellagra, poverty and the prize of medical uncertainty
Boel Berner
Linköpings universitet
In Italy in the 1870s and the US in the early 20th century, blood transfusion was tried against pellagra, a disease claiming thousands of deaths each year and predominantly affecting the poor in society; in Italy poor peasants in the North, in the US, poor blacks in the South. It started as a skin disease, then led to insanity and often death. The quite odd therapy of transfusion against insanity was a sign of the bewilderment and lack of knowledge as to the causes of the disease.

In my talk, I follow the scientific controversies in both countries between those who forwarded a structural hypothesis and saw pellagra as related to discrimination, poverty, and malnutrition, and those who forwarded arguments that, in a sense, blamed the victims – either their eating habits or their race. The latter theories, based in the US also on fraudulent and racist statistics, would influence public policy and medical thinking,. They meant a perpetuation of inequalities and lead to thousands of unnecessary deaths until a vitamin deficiency theory – linked, as I see it, to the structural hypothesis – was finally accepted in the mid-1930s.

An American Dilemma Reanalyzed
David Bowling
Lunds universitet
The object(s) of my research is the intellectual output of the Swedish Nobel Prize winning social scientist, Gunnar Myrdal, specifically his sociological works on racism towards black Americans in the late 1930s and early 1940s plus a later work in the late 1970’s. In 1938, Myrdal was commissioned by the Carnegie Corporation’s philanthropic body to carry out a study on the problem, and six years later, Myrdal and his team of researchers published their findings in a 1500-page text entitled, An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy (hereafter, Dilemma). This study of the USA’s ‘race problem’ was unprecedented in its size and scope , and the book would ultimately become the first piece of social scientific research to be cited in a US Supreme Court decision: Brown vs Board of Education in 1954, which resulted in the desegregation of public schools in the US and ultimately paved the way for a dismantling of legal racial discrimination in the South. Myrdal planned a follow-up of the study nearly 30 years later entitled, An American Dilemma Revisited: The Racial Crisis in the United States in Perspective (hereafter, Dilemma Revisited). This book, intended to be 500-800 pages, was never published, though drafts exist in Myrdal’s personal archive. Despite the prominence of the original Dilemma, only a small amount of research exists connecting it to Myrdal’s Swedish background and works. Furthermore, no published work exists on the making of Dilemma Revisited. These are gaps that I will fill with my research, examining both texts in a comparative manner with a focus on the research practices used by Myrdal and their effects on the knowledge produced.

The primary interest guiding my research is in the area of knowledge production with respect to both texts and placing them within the history of the social sciences. Following a comparative approach, I will examine the social and intellectual contexts in which Myrdal worked and probe the social scientific practices that went into the research and writing of Dilemma and Dilemma Revisited in order to explain the contents of the texts. Thus, the comparisons will occur along two axes: temporally i.e. the time between the texts and spatially i.e. between Sweden and the US. Further, my analysis will delve into questions of the relationship between science and policy in both the USA and Sweden as well as to the practice of social science in both countries.

The overall purpose of my study is to investigate the impact of research practices, including methodological choices, on knowledge production. As such, it uses an historical case to study the sociology of knowledge, which I hope can aid future social scientific practitioners to reflect over the impact of practices and methodological choices on the knowledge they produce. Specifically, the research will demonstrate the impact of research practices on Myrdal’s conclusions and recommendations to solving a form of social inequality, thus allowing a fuller consideration of these recommendations (i.e. assimilation) as they might apply today.

To summarize, I propose a comparative analysis of Myrdal’s magnum opus, An American Dilemma, with his unpublished revised version, An American Dilemma Revisited, with a focus on the social contexts and research practices that went into the books’ knowledge production in order to explain their content. As such, this is a work in the history of social science as well as an investigation into the processes of knowledge production. Further, Myrdal was a public intellectual who shaped national projects in both the USA and Sweden, thus understanding the foundations of his research and views on the role of science in society further adds to the histories of the two nation-states.

Politiska representationer: LO:s utredningar som epistemiskt policyarbete
Stefan Edling
Lunds universitet
Hur producerar politiska organisationer versioner av det samhälle de agerar i? På vilka sätt interagerar samhällsvetenskaplig teori, kvantitativa data, och utredningars kunskapsobjekt med organisationers politiska intressen? I mitt projekt följer jag etnografiskt och genom intervjuer hur LO:s utredare och ekonomer skapar och förmedlar versioner av det svenska samhället i ett större utredningsprojekt som pågått mellan 2016 och 2019. En utgångspunkt är att den cirkulering och produktion av kunskap som politiska organisationer ägnar sig åt är viktig dels för att den har en stor förmåga att få spridning och därmed ha stor effekt på människors förståelse för vad samhället är, och dels för att den påverkar vilken politik som förs. Medan det finns en litteratur om epistemiska policyaktörer i både internationell och svensk kontext finns det, så vitt jag kan bedöma, en allmän tendens mot att i analysen tappa det specifikt epistemiska och fokusera på aktörernas vägar till politiskt inflytande utan att meningsfullt förstå dem som producenter eller tillhandahållare av kunskap. En viktig målsättning i mitt projekt är att beskriva politiskt utredningsarbete utan att varken aprioriskt definiera dess resultat som otrovärdig eller illegitim kunskap eller tappa sikte på att dess syfte huvudsakligen är politisk påverkan.

I ett historiskt perspektiv kan betydelsen av LO:s utredningar i svensk politik knappast överdrivas. LO-ekonomerna Gösta Rehn och Rudolf Meidner formulerade till stor del den svenska socialdemokratiska efterkrigspolitiken, och Meidners löntagarfonder var en kontroversiell fråga som kom att stundvis dominera den inrikespolitiska debatten på 1970 och ’80-talen. Idag är LO snarare att betrakta som en kunskapsproducent i en flora av svenska epistemiska policyaktörer, om än en framträdande sådan. Det utredningsprojekt jag undersöker innefattar 17 publicerade underlagsrapporter – huvudsakligen skrivna av externa rapportförfattare på uppdrag av LO – och 3 sammanfattande politiska program. Utredningens resultat kommuniceras i massmedia, genom presentationer och seminarier i närliggande organisationer, och genom en Sverigeturné under hösten 2019 där LO-ekonomer och utredare presenterar slutrapporten i de tio LO-distrikten. Mitt projekt bygger på intervjuer och workshops med människor som på olika sätt arbetat med utredningen inom LO, intervjuer med externa rapportförfattare och lokala LO-representanter, deltagande observation när LO:s utredare presenterar resultaten i distrikten och på LO-kongressen, och på dokument och rapporter i anslutning till utredningen.
I projektet har jag som ansats att anta den utmaning som redaktörerna till Social Knowledge in the Making (Camic, Gross & Lamont, 2011) ger i bokens inledningskapitel: att vidga studieobjektet för science and technology studies (STS) till samhällsvetenskaplig kunskapsproduktion. Min grundsyn på hur forskning och utredningar bör studeras hämtar inspiration från författare inom aktör-nätverksteori eller materiell semiotik (t.ex. Bruno Latour och John Law) och närliggande och kompatibla teoretiker som Annemarie Mol. I projektet beskriver jag den utredningsprocess jag studerar som en berättelse med början i dess initiativ på kongressen 2016, fram till dess återrapportering till kongressen 2020. Utifrån detta besvarar jag empirinära frågor om hur utredningar och intresseformulering går till i just LO:s utredningsverksamhet, och hoppas på att samtidigt kunna skapa en beskrivning av politisk kunskapsproduktion som kan användas för att förstå andra organisationer eller kontexter. Utöver detta huvudsyfte är jag intresserad av utredningarna som exempel på hur samhällsvetenskapliga metoder och teorier färdas utanför universitet och högskolor, och på vad som händer med idéer från litteratur om naturvetenskap när de möter en sorts kunskapsproduktion med svagare och mindre universell verklighetseffekt.

På Sociologidagarna 2020 kommer större delen av materialet till projektet att vara insamlat. Jag kommer att presentera huvuddragen i projektet och en del av de resultat och den analys som jag vid konferenstillfället arbetar med.

Discourses come and go: Methodological reflections in studying a sociological department during a 75 years of existence
Hedvig Ekerwald
Uppsala universitet
A history of an academic department is often written when the department is undergoing a jubilee. But how does one write such a history of a sociological department? Can it simply be a celebratory history or does the discipline in itself raise the standards as it harbours so much organizational knowledge? What does the sociological historian do with the scandals and affairs? Shall only the famous researchers, the popular courses and the successful research projects be mentioned? Can a facts-only history be a way of saving the sociological historian from taking difficult decisions on what to tell and what not to tell? Apart from that problem, what about the changes in discourses governing the research? Can a periodization of ways of thinking during different times illustrate the intellectual history of the department? Questions such as these are discussed in connection with a project to write a history of a specific sociological department.  

Ending homelessness in Norway? Ideas and discourse in governing complexity
Maja Flåto
Storbyuniversitetet
Policies aimed at homelessness in Norway is governed as cross- sectorial cooperation among policy sectors managing relevant measures. The housing sector has had the main responsibility since the field were developed in 2001; health, welfare and criminal justice sector are partners in the cooperation. The agents interacting in policymaking represent their sectorial institutions, and are embedded in that discourse, when they aim at developing adequate policy initiatives.

Policymaking aimed at homelessness therefore makes an interesting example of coordination of policies in general, suitable for studies of how phenomena differ according to sectorial discourse, and how this comes to show in a coordinative discourse. The discourse that is shaped by the interaction of a limited number of agents is what ends up framing the situation or challenge at hand, and how to solve it; it creates institutional infrastructure. As for the case of long-term homelessness in Norway, this is a situation experienced by very few persons, which represent a marginalized group, experiencing social exclusion on several levels.

They are, in Norway, to a little degree organized as a group based on their lack of housing, and are without resources to act on their own behalf. Contribution to transparency in policymaking in this policy field is therefore important. The study builds on discourse analyses of data material from interviews, observation and text. The theoretical framework is inspired by approaches within the sociology of knowledge tradition, and institutionalism.

You Won’t Believe Your Eyes: Scientific visualization for inquiry and evidence
Alison Gerber
Lunds universitet
This paper investigates the development of new methods for scientific visualization and their movements across epistemic cultures to understand the circumstances under which we allow ourselves to accept claims made using constructed, synthesized, and ML-generated images. When do we believe the truths that fictions can offer?

Images like brain scans and botanical illustrations are central to scientific practice. Decades of research have illuminated the social processes behind the construction of scientific representations, and recent studies have shown how decidedly analog practices impact the development of scientific visualizations built from digital data (Coopmans et al. 2014; Lynch and Woolgar 1990; Myers 2008; Vertesi 2015). But today, accessible technologies can create lifelike algorithmically generated images – photo-like pictures made not with lenses but through the manipulation of digital data. These new kinds of images have introduced distinctive challenges to our ability to trust the things we can see with our own eyes.

Using an ethnographic study of a team of archaeologists working to develop new 3D/4D tools and a focus on their collaborations with law enforcement to develop new methods to capture crime scenes, this project leverages a unique object of study – a group of scientists aiming to develop new methodological tools to serve both a clearly bounded scientific community and an unruly, high-stakes lay community – to investigate the ways scientists use imagery to show what they know and, crucially, how they go about the work of convincing others to know it themselves.

En titthålskirurgi av en sociologikorpus – några innehållsliga trender i licentiat- och doktorsavhandlingar framlagda i Sverige
Josef Ginnerskov
Uppsala universitet
Genom det senaste århundrandet har sociologer brottats med frågorna “vad är sociologi” och “vad kännetecknar sociologins kunskapsproduktion”. Under de senaste årtiondena har en uppgiven vind blåst genom det inomdisciplinära samtalet – sociologin är för pluralistisk i sin teori- och metodanvändning för att kunna tillskrivas en allmän grund, praktik eller princip. Emellertid har många värdefulla försök till att avgränsa ämnet gjorts genom historien och ett flertal insiktsfulla typologier finns att tillhandagå i litteraturen. Det sociologiskt vanskliga med de flesta av dessa metasociologiska övningar är däremot att de inte vilar på ett empiriskt grundat underlag. Syftet med den här presentationen är att ge ett första prov på hur innehållet (vad-frågan) av en viss typ av sociologisk kunskap tar form och byter form över tid. Objektet är akademiska texter som överlevt en bedömning av representanter för en disciplin, och det valda empiriska materialet är licentiat- och doktorsavhandlingar, vilka bär den intressanta egenskapen av att ha en fot i forskning och en i utbildning. Fallet är, med andra ord, de dryga tusen avhandlingar som lagts fram vid de svenska sociologiska institutionerna i forskningsämnet sociologi. Det är en av de få instanser där akademiska sociologer de facto tillskriver en bok ”sociologins sigill”. I ett försök att ge en djuplodad relationell beskrivning av hur detta sociologiinnehåll fluktuerar över tidsrymder försöker jag (i ett första led) att inte luta mig mot ingrodda förklaringsmodeller, såsom författarintentioner, livstrajektorier, institutionernas organisatoriska uppbyggnad eller vetenskapssamhällenas doxor. Avhandlingarna ses, därtill, inte som förgivettagna efterträdare i ett institutionellt projekt eller en bindestreckssociologi, utan behandlas som en lång uppsättning individuella händelser där en multiplicitet av heterogena beståndsdelar aktualiseras. För att kunna skildra mönster av former och uttryck som finns inneslutna i korpusen jobbar jag med en blandning av kvalitativa och kvantitativa metoder vars resultat analyseras på olika nivåer, exempelvis: automatiserade textanalyser för att bryta ur teman från fulltexter; tolkningar av sammanfattningar och nyckelord; beskrivningar av hur kvantifierbara aspekter såsom rumslig distribution språkanvändning och kön förändras över tid. När skörden fyllt ladorna kan sedan teoretiserandet börja.

Goda och dåliga cirklar: den nordiska välfärdsstaten och den analytiska filosofin
Carl-Göran Heidegren
Lunds universitet
Temat för min presentation utgör en del av ett större arbete om filosofin i de nordiska länderna vid tiden för symbolåret ”1968”. Det handlar om en bakgrund till vad som tilldrog sig ”1968”. Jag tematiserar förhållandet mellan samhälle (den nordiska välfärdsstaten) och kultur (den analytiska filosofin). Min tes är att de båda – den nordiska välfärdsstaten och den analytiska filosofin – passade utomordentligt väl ihop. Min argumentation för detta är uppbyggd kring följande centrala begrepp och teman: skapa en metafysikfri atmosfär, tillnyktring/saklighet, valfrändskap, virtuous and vicious circles, kulturhygienister, profylaktisk filosofipolitik. Under efterkrigstiden uppstod föreställningen om två radikalt olika typer av filosofi; den ena ansågs utgöra ett latent hot mot den demokratiska välfärdsstaten, medan den andra kunde uppfattas som en stödtrupp till denna. Det var denna allians som ”1968”-generationen sedan på olika sätt revolterade emot.

Knowing the value of centers of excellence
Anders Hylmö
Lunds universitet
Research funding constitutes an institutional and economic precondition for knowledge production in any contemporary national research system. The pros and cons of the design and arrangement of different forms of funding, including various external funding schemes, is a much debated research policy topic. However, the very processes of policy formulation and management at the funding agencies itself involves knowledge production with consequences for research. This paper investigates how evaluative knowledge was produced and used in the program design, selection of proposals, and mid-term evaluations of two Swedish center of excellence (CoE) funding schemes in Sweden, the Vinn Excellence Center (VinnEx) and Berzelii Center (BC) programmes.

Centers of excellence is a funding model promoting large scale research collaborations that has formed a recent international trend in science policy, seemingly peaking in the 00’s. One of the most influential Swedish CoE programmes is the VinnEx programme run by the innovation agency Vinnova. Starting in 2005, it funded 19 centers with the aim to produce excellent basic research driven by industrial needs in collaboration with external partners. Centers were granted up to SEK 70m over 10 years by Vinnova, conditional on international mid-term evaluations. Vinnovas invested over SEK 1 bn, and the programme amounted to almost SEK 5 bn including co-funding from universities and industry partners. The programme was a modified and renamed version of the earlier Competence Center (CC) programme, continued today under that name. The BC program was run in parallel jointly by Vinnova and Vetenskapsrådet, funding 4 centers with a more basic research orientation.

In the literature on policy learning and transfer, policy formulation is often studied as a (boundedly) rational learning process. In this paper, I approach this process from a sociology of knowledge perspective, drawing on the sociology of (e)valuation, and the sociology of expectations and imaginaries. The process of production and use of knowledge is here taken as the object of study, bracketing the rationality of the process, and policy formulation is analyzed as a detailed empirical process, with attention to the actors’ production, use and legitimation of knowledge in its context.

I address four interrelated questions about the production and use of evaluative knowledge. First, how was knowledge produced and employed in the formulation of the programme? Second, how were proposals evaluated and funding decisions arrived at? Third, how was knowledge of centre performance produced and used by the funders in the governance of the research centers? Fourth, what expectations and imaginaries of the role of science in society where active in these processes, and in what way did they affect the production of evaluative knowledge. The paper draws empirically on semi-structured interviews with key staff involved in the processes at Vinnova and Vetenskapsrådet, and a broad range of Vinnova archival material.

I argue that neither the visible science policy discourses on excellence and innovation systems, nor international examples, where decisive knowledge inputs in the formulation and management of the programmes. Instead, the design of particularly VinnEx is better understood in terms of the historical institutional continuity of the Swedish CC program family, mediated through knowledge generated both by international evaluations and institutional experience. Secondly, the two funding agencies are fueled by different operational logics and imaginaries of the role of research, resonating with differing views on how to produce and use evaluative knowledge in the governance of research. Finally, the slight differences between the two programmes regarding the complex processes of evaluating proposals for funding decisions point to the different ways that imaginaries of the role of CoE:s in promoting scientific excellence and industry collaboration affect the design of evaluation processes.

Refracting through Technology
Ericka Johnson
Linköpings universitet
In my talk, I will explore the ‘material-discursive entanglement’ of how we both make the world with our words and how the materiality of the world forces us to put words on it. Beginning with the conundrum of how the things that make up our world are both shaped by and shape the ways in which we talk about, engage with and think about them, I accept the entanglement and then work backwards, using the metaphor of refraction to help articulate the structures, values and norms that discursively shape our world and our selves in it. Through a series of empirical examples taken from work on medical technologies and the body, I will show how researchers and designers can use material things – technologies – to refract discourses and articulate the concerns and voices producing them. Refraction as a metaphor is thus suggested as a concept to apply analytical work to political concerns about the technological world. Finally, I will show how manipulating the discursive or the material can be motivated by the desire to enact positive social change, thus emphasizing the usefulness of refraction as a method to make visible the norms and values of discourses entangled in our material world.

Blending in or challenging professional culture in STEM: meanings of success and career strategies of Russian and German women scientists
Anna Khanukaeva
Uppsala universitet
STEM is traditionally seen as an academic field that is male dominated and known for its professional patriarchal culture, and for the fact that women scientists struggle to climb the academic ladder. There is evidence that women in this field adopt gender-appropriate professional identities in order to gain entry and pursue a career in this field. Thus, choice of one of the strategies that women STEM-scientists use becomes crucial for women in order to advance in their careers. Moreover, interpretation of what success means for scientists plays a role in the choice of further career strategy and self-positioning in the field. This presentation sheds light on the ways women construct meanings of success and the process of adoption of gendered professional identities in two different academic contexts, Russia, influenced by the soviet legacy and Germany, influenced by the Western corporate University, and the ways in which this process is related to the perceptions of career success that women scientists uphold.

On the basis of 10 semi-structured interviews with women in STEM disciplines in one university in Moscow, Russia (5) and one in Tübingen, Germany (5) this presentation addresses the similarities and differences found, and proposes that work environments and academic cultures explain the career strategies that the informants adopt. In Russia, women scientists tend to adopt a collective or group-oriented identity, formulating success in relation to being a teacher as a calling, while in Germany, professional identities are based more on the model of the individualistic, entrepreneurial scientist, measuring success through the research lenses. The two strategies found – blending in (Russia and Germany) and challenging (Germany) – seem to be rooted in women scientists’ understandings of what constitutes career success. Thus, this study suggests that the alternative views on what success in academic careers means for women in STEM, may be an entry point if we want to theorise about the career advancement barriers that women scientists face.

Small-scale community, large-scale assessments: The IEA as a transnational network
Joakim Landahl
Stockholms universitet
The role of international large-scale assessments of education has during the last two decades expanded, due to the launch of the PISA test in the year 2000. This study is a contribution to the early history of international testing, going back to the formative years in the 1960s and 1970s. Formed in 1958 as a group connected with Unesco Institute for Education, what became known as the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) pioneered the use of international testing, starting with a pilot study published in 1962, a mathematics study in 1967 and the so called six subject study in 1973-1976.

The basic idea of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) was that the educational world could be seen as a natural laboratory. Individual countries were considered as too small and homogenous to provide explanations for differences in school performance. This perspective implied a certain way of organizing research. From its inception the IEA was conceived as a transnational collaborative project with researchers from different national and professional backgrounds. This presentation aims at exploring some of the ways in which this transnational network was created, how it worked and how it was sustained as well as challenged. I will specifically focus on two different but interconnected aspects: the role of personal relationships and the role of computers.

Tracking Transmission: knowledge infrastructures and the performance of accountability relations in disease surveillance
Francis Lee
Uppsala universitet
This paper deals with how accountability for disease outbreaks is assigned in practice, and the work to align various knowledge infrastructures to support this. The paper follows the different practices, infrastructures, and technologies that actors use to assign accountability for a disease outbreak. Thus, the focus is on actors’ work to align a heterogeneity of knowledge infrastructures—medical, biological, social, and geographical—to locate accountability for a disease outbreak in time and space.

At stake is how the source of a disease outbreak is constructed and stabilized in practice, using various forms of evidence ranging from incubation times to TripAdvisor maps. That is, how international accountability relations are assigned through the alignment (or mis-alignment) of a heterogeneity of knowledge infrastructures.

The empirical case is an investigation of an outbreak of Legionella at the European Center for Disease Control and Prevention (ECDC). The actors struggle with locating the source of an outbreak of Legionella to a specific location in Dubai. Thus, the actors at the ECDC are attempting to stabilize and locate accountability in Dubai, while the authorities in Dubai are disputing that the outbreak is located within their sphere of accountability.

Radikal pluralism, öppensinnad mainstream och paradigmatisk heterodoxi i Ecological Economics
Jakob Lundgren
Göteborgs universitet
Ekologisk ekonomi är ett brett, tvärvetenskapligt forskningsfält som har ett internationellt sällskap, flera regionala sällskap och en central tidskrift, Ecological Economics. Fältet etablerades under sent 80-tal, och grundade sig i frustration över hur nationalekonomi inte tog hänsyn till miljöaspekter, och hur den miljöekonomi som fanns var fast i nationalekonomisk metodologi. Verk som var centrala för fältet då det startades var Bouldings beskrivning av ”rymdskeppsekonomin” i kontrast mot ”cowboyekonomin”, Georgescu-Roegens termodynamiskt baserade kritik av nationalekonomisk metod och Dalys ide om ”steady-state economy”. Tidskriften Ecological Economics grundades 1989, och lanserades som metodologiskt öppen. Syftet var at publicera artiklar som varken var rent ekologiska eller rent ekonomiska.

Tidskriftens uttalade öppenhet ledde dock till att även teoretiker som använder nationalekonomisk metod trots allt har bidragit till forskningen inom fältet. Närvaron av nationalekonomisk metod, och mainstreamingen av det intilliggande, nationalekonomiska fältet miljöekonomi, har lett till spänningar inom ekologisk ekonomi. Under 00-talet dominerades tidskriften av artiklar baserade på kvantitativ metod och modellering, vilket är just det som kritiserats som för snävt då fältet grundades. Samtidigt verkade de styrande i det europeiska sällskapet aktivt för att utesluta nationalekonomer, och dessa slutade även dyka upp på konferenserna och i tidskriften. Den svenske miljöekonomen Carl Folke, exempelvis, fick mellan 1991 och 2003 i snitt en gång om året en artikel publicerad i Ecological Economics, men efter 2003 dröjde det nästan tio år innan ett fåtal artikel med honom som medförfattare dök upp igen, och sedan detta fåtal har han inte synts till där igen.

Min forskning handlar om dessa spänningar inom fältet ekologisk ekonomi. Genom intervjuer med såväl nuvarande som tidigare redaktörer och biträdande redaktörer på tidskriften, samt nyckelpersoner i det internationella och de regionala sällskapen, undersöker jag de skillnader i tankestil som ligger till grund för spänningarna, och hur situationen påverkas av organisatoriska beslut rörande tidskriften och sällskapen. Tidskriften har sedan slutet av 00-talet genomgått åtminstone två stora förändringar. 2007 tillträdde en ny redaktör, och han expanderade antalet biträdande redaktörer för att handskas med en ökad inströmning av manuskript. Dock räckte inte denna expansion, och tidskriften omorganiserades igen till en modell med två huvudredaktörer och ett stort antal underredaktörer. Vilka personer som tillsatts på dessa poster, och de tankestilar som ligger bakom de redaktionella beslut de fattar, påverkar hur fältets gränser dras.

En central faktor som spelar in är de spänningar som redan finns mellan mainstream inom nationalekonomi och diverse heterodoxa ekonomiska inriktningar. Institutionella, sociala och politiska ekonomiska teorier, bland andra, har inom nationalekonomin blivit undanträngda av individbaserad matematisk modellering. Dessa perspektiv finns dock representerade inom ekologisk ekonomi. Eftersom de nationalekonomer som är aktiva inom ekologisk ekonomi hör till dem som är mer kritiska av den egna mainstreamen välkomnar de dessa perspektiv, även om de kanske inte skulle anse det vara ”ekonomi” i strikt mening. Dock finns det heterodoxa ekologiska ekonomer som istället menar att det är nationalekonomisk mainstream som bör uteslutas ur ekologisk ekonomi. Vilka som drar gränser och vilka som är öppna ställs alltså på huvudet inom fältet gentemot ekonomi i övrigt. Relaterat är frågan om huruvida ekologisk ekonomi bör vara ett paradigm eller ett öppet forum, och skillnader mellan de forskare som är socialt aktiva inom sällskapen och de artiklar som publiceras i tidskriften.

What is Good Enough? How Early Career Academics Use Appraisal Devices in the Face of Uncertainty
Jonatan Nästesjö
Lunds universitet
The experience of uncertainty is a key characteristic of what it means to be a researcher. However, it is striking that previous studies have emphasized the workings of epistemic uncertainties, thus to a great extent neglecting other, more social, kinds of uncertainty relating to funding and careers (Fochler and Sigl 2018).

In this paper, I am asking how early career academics in political science and history deal with the tension between career aspiration and market uncertainty. Market uncertainty occurs when there is a lack of knowledge about how scholars themselves will be evaluated by gatekeepers on the academic market. This kind of uncertainty exists in part because of a general lack of objective evaluative standards for academic work and in part because of recent changes in the social organization of research. However, learning what counts and how to estimate the quality of one’s work are crucial for the socialization of newcomers entering academia.

Drawing upon recent developments in the sociology of (e)valuation, I use the concept of appraisal devices (Fürst 2018) to analyze how early career academics deal with market uncertainty. Being an extension of Karpik’s (2010) judgement devices, appraisal devices offer trusted and knowledgeable appraisals of early career academics chances of success and failure on the academic market. An analysis of 35 in-depth interviews with early career academics shows that they use three main sources of appraisal devices: assessors (e.g. scholarly mentors), competitions (e.g. evaluation reports), and quantifications (e.g. performance indicators). Appraisal devices function both as signs of recognition (tools for self-evaluation) and as reference points for how quality and performance criteria are defined in specific institutional contexts (tools for orientation and decision-making). Hence, in using appraisal devices, early career academics learn to evaluate the quality of their own work and to anticipate how it should develop within limited time frames and what accountable outputs it should deliver.

To understand the function of appraisal devices in different disciplinary settings, and to further develop the concept as such, I demonstrate how the criteria for, and effects of, using appraisal devices are influenced of what I call appraisal fields. This opens up for an understanding of the relationship between appraisal devices and the strategies employed by people using them, indicating that the work of early career academics in political science and history to a different degree are configured around multiple regimes of worth (Stark 2009).

On mediators…
Daniel Normark
Uppsala universitet
Within ANT a central tenant, I argue, lies on the qualitative difference between mediators and intermediaries. But quite often (apart from Antoine Hennion’s work) this difference is only hinted at. This essay will dwell on the details of what is specific with mediators metaphorically and in practice drawing from an autobiography by a mediator in the Somalia conflict in 1990-1991 (By Sture Normark), and other diplomats in peace negotiation (Such as Isak Svensson’s analysis of Jan Eliasson). Understanding the role of mediators, I argue, is central for the future of STS both as a focus of empirical investigation and as a reflexive description of the role as researchers. This is particularly apparent in the way the future of STS has been presented by eg. Collin’s third wave promoting STS as experts of experts or Latour’s modes of existence inquiry, propagating the role of STS as diplomats.

The actionable social knowledge: What sociology can learn from user experience research?
Seweryn Rudnicki
AGH University of Science and Technology
The social aspects of the challenges we now face as a civilisation are evident. Less evident is, however, how sociology may help to overcome them. The mainstream ways of doing sociology seem to foreground the explanatory power of our discipline arguing that the main role of sociology is to foster the understanding of the social life. There are also these widespread opinions that the social world is ontologically different and more complex than the natural one, or that we can hardly meet the methodological standards of “hard” sciences. Can we now still afford have these kind of explanations? Or, is there a way we could make sociological knowledge more actionable yet maintaining its integrity and identity?

The notion of “actionable knowledge” was popularized in the sociology of knowledge by Nico Stehr (Sehr 1992; Stehr, Grundman 2001). He argued that to become more practically useful social knowledge neither has to represent fully the complexity of social life, nor follow the natural sciences in their methodological approaches. It only needs to become more actionable i.e. offer clues for taking actions. Yet, it is still not quite clear what does this term mean or how may we actually make social knowledge actionable. In this presentation I will try to answer these questions by analysing how social knowledge is produced and used in the field of user experience research and design.

User experience (UX) is today a major trend in developing products, interfaces and services in order to maximize the amount of positive reactions and experiences of a person (“user”) has from the interaction. The dominant approach in UX design requires the collection of considerable amounts of qualitative and quantitative data on people’s needs, preferences and reactions. Importantly, the social knowledge produced in this field is directly used and applied to refine digital products (e.g. mobile apps). To meet the requirement of instant application and struggling for recognition within digital industry user researchers have developed a number of ways to make the social knowledge they produce easier to use.

The data collected during extensive study of the field of user research (50 in-depth interviews, 2 non-participant observations in UX departments, expert literature analysis) allows to draw some conclusions on the way social knowledge may become actionable. The results suggest that actionability is not a constant characteristic of certain piece of knowledge but rather a relational aspect, dependent on the relationship between the knowledge and the field of its reception. The findings also help to develop Stehr’s original concept of actionable knowledge by proposing extra conditions that should be met, if knowledge is to become actionable. Finally, the results also allow to notice some consequences for sociology as a discipline that may result from becoming actionable.

Post-sanning och ideologikritikens återkomst
Johan Söderberg
Göteborgs universitet
Post-sanning, alternativ fakta, faktaresistens… kärt barn har många namn. Det nya politiska klimatet förebådar återkomsten för ideologibegreppet. Den centrala problemställningen för kunskapssociologin vid dess födelseögonblick var hur om alls det gick att göra åtskillnad mellan ideologi och vetenskap. I och med att den ideologikritiska ansatsen hamnade i vanrykte, och ersattes med skolbildningar inspirerade av post-strukturalistiska läror, upphörde denna fråga att alls ställas. Fram tills nyligen dominerade en eller annan version av påbudet, att forskare skulle förhålla sig symmetriskt till aktörers sannings- och kunskapsanspråk. Post-sanning är en möjlighet att återvända till vetenskapsteorins och kunskapssociologins klassiska frågeställningar för att hitta verktyg som kan adressera det nya, politiska klimatet.

The Social Construction of A Crisis: Migration, Welfare and Civil Society in Malmö
Priscilla Solano
Princeton University
I take welfare social policy narratives and reports by civils society in Malmö as a case study in this paper to explore the social construction of crisis in relation to migration. This paper focuses on the topics of crisis construction, social policy within the city of Malmö and the importance of policy narratives to both. In the cusp of the so-called migration crisis Sweden received more than 160 000 asylum seekers in 2015, a record quota for the country. In the aftermath of 2015, the sense of crisis disappeared from the political arena. Yet, civil society in Malmö denounces a ‘humanitarian’ crisis has been unravelling in the city and is more acute currently in 2019.

A growing group of rejected asylum-seekers, especially unaccompanied minors, referred as those that faller mellan stolarna, falling between the cracks, are suffering from homelessness; lack access to basic needs, are vulnerable to criminal and sexual abuse, labour exploitation among a plethora of other vulnerabilities and social problems. In this scenario civil society has been compelled to fill voids for the municipality of Malmö. Considering the social construction of the crisis will be explored in this paper by looking at the contrasting definition of governmental authorities and civil society actors as a “crisis” and how civil society and government responses occur or not.

I will use the Narrative Policy Framework and the prominent contemporary issue of migration to explore the social construction of a crisis and potential social policy change in Malmö, Sweden. I will use the NPF and apply it to policy guidelines for Social Services from the Municipality of Malmö in the provision of economic and other care support 2017 -2019 and three key civil society actors reports and services offered to migrants. This research asserts there is an important shift in Sweden concerning the role and need of civil society.

Changing conditions for knowledge production in doctoral training
Liv Sunnercrantz
Universitetet i Stavanger
Since the 1980s, Swedish doctoral training has been subject to far-reaching changes. Structuration processes including changes in demands, financing, admission procedures, and individualised planning, play a part in this. An increase of control in doctoral training programmes also seems to go hand in hand with new public management. An increasing emphasis on time keeping, utility and cost efficiency thus take precedence over bildung ideals. Paradoxically, given the otherwise omnipresent focus on creativity and innovation, such central concepts for knowledge production seem to be marginalised in todays’ doctoral training. How then, do these overarching changes affect how doctoral students are trained to produce knowledge? Admission procedure directs focus towards the individual’s capabilities. Universities look for gifted individuals capable of independent labour and creative thinking. Still, applicants’ capability to complete the doctoral education serves as the main selection criteria to sort eligible candidates for research education. In order to secure stable candidates that finish on time and avoid “mis-recruitments” of stressed-out individuals at an earlier stage, recruitment procedures have shifted the focus on qualifications and responsibilities for the research education onto individual psychosocial capabilities. Potentially problematic cultures and shortfalls in local traditions, training and socialisation can thus be concealed. Instead of evaluating the potential of candidates to learn relevant qualities through the PhD education, the would-be-outcomes have become prerequisites. Whether creativity and originality can flourish alongside such weeding out of potential candidates is questionable. This highlights the importance of identifying the conditions, relationships, and institutions that shape doctoral training. Once enrolled, are these elements encouraged, forgotten or supressed in favour of conformity? Are we seeing an individualisation of knowledge production and doctoral training in the social sciences? Have knowledge-producing institutions shifted from an idea of a creative climate/milieu that fosters individuals/thinking/knowledge production, to a demand for pre-made creative individuals? If so, what is the purpose of the milieu? Is the institutional environment simply a means of control and management? I discuss these questions by drawing on an on-going research project in which investigate institutional conditions by analysing naturally occurring data as well as accounts from PhD students, their mentors and central actors in PhD education across universities and disciplinary boundaries in the three Scandinavian countries.

“I’ll look into it!” Lubricants in conversational coproduction
Katarina Winter
Stockholms universitet
“This study investigates the interaction between civil servants and politicians in a planning committee in a Swedish county council. As the committees are venues for preparation of future decision-making, civil servants and others are invited to inform and report to the politicians on different topics. The aim is to explore this local interaction process based on an analysis of requests and responses. It is shown that the communication between civil servants and politicians is pervaded by sociability in the form of conversational routines. The article aims to recognize this sociability as an intrinsic part of knowledge coproduction processes. Civil servants and politicians negotiate different types of professional and common knowledge through routines that
dislocate time, responsibility, roles, and protocol order. These lubricants – important but often circumvented in studies of policy-making – are explored as instances of conversational coproduction.

Boundary work and changing alliances in evidence-based CBT
Jonas Ringström
Högskolan Kristianstad

Academic glass ceilings, leaky pipelines and extra-academic havens? Gender and empirical social research in Sweden 1900-1950
Per Wisselgren
Umeå universitet
In 1874 women students were formally admitted to enter the exclusively male-dominated Swedish universities. A quarter of century later, in 1897, Elsa Eschelsson achieved the grades of licentiate, doctor and docent in law (all in the same year). Another quarter of century later, in 1925, Margit Cassel became the first female doctor of economics. Cassel was followed by Karin Kock, who received her doctorate in 1927, became docent in 1933 and received a honorary professorship in 1945. However, not until in 1949, another quarter of a century after Cassel’s doctorate, a woman was appointed a regular chair for the first time, when Gerd Enequist became Professor of Geography in Uppsala. This delayed advancement of women social scientists in the academic career system might strengthen the traditional accounts on the history of the social sciences as a predominantly male concern, in which the few individual women mentioned above appear as marginal exceptions.

However, a historiographical problem with the male-centred traditional accounts is that they tend to ignore the well-documented and seemingly paradoxical fact that women were not only present and active, but also often were in majority and played leading roles in pre-academic reform-oriented social research which in important respects laid the epistemic ground for academic social science. In this respect the ”glass ceiling” metaphor helps us to detect and identify the formal and informal obstacles for women’s advancement within the academic career system. But it is unable to solve the paradox in the sense of explaining the more exact relationship between academic and extra-academic social research in the history of the social sciences. Here another metaphor, ”the leaky pipeline” – frequently used in studies on the gendered structuring of professional career systems, focusing more on the drop-out effects of the ”glass ceilings” – is of interest, since it draws our attention to and highlights those women who entered academic social science but in the end decided to pursue social research outside the academic walls. Among them we find individuals like Kerstin Hesselgren, Karin Kock, Alva Myrdal, Carin Boalt and Brita Åkerman – just to mention a few of the most prominent ones.

This paper argues that we should develop the implication of the ”leaky pipeline” metaphor one step further and follow the trajectories of these individuals and analyse how they through their practices actively weaved together academic social science with contemporary extra-academic – private, public and semi-academic – social reseach institutions. If we do so, I argue, it will become clear, first, that these extra-academic institutions partly can be seen as ”gendered havens” of social research, second, that these ought to be included in the history of social sciences to better understand the dynamics of academic as well as extra-academic social research and, third, that such a broadened sociology of knowledge and science approach would offer a more nuanced understanding of the seemingly paradoxical presence and absence of women in the history of social science.

14 Medicinsk sociologi

Kontaktperson: Shai Mulinari (shai.mulinari@soc.lu.se)

Sexual harassment and students’ psychological health complaints: individual and school-class associations
Sara Brolin Låftman
Stockholms universitet

Background: Sexual harassment is a stressor for those who are exposed, and associated with lower psychological well-being. Yet, it is possible that the occurrence of sexual harassment in the school class is stressful also for those who are not directly targeted, with potential negative effects on well-being for all students.
Aim: The aim was to examine whether sexual harassment at the student- and at the school class-level was associated with students’ psychological health complaints.

Method: Data from the Swedish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) of 2017/18 was used, with information from students aged 11, 13 and 15 years (n=3,720 distributed across 209 school class units). Psychological health complaints were constructed as a summative index of four items capturing how often the student had felt low, felt irritable or bad tempered, felt nervous, or had difficulties to fall asleep, during the past six months (Cronbach’s alpha=0.78). Sexual harassment at the student-level was measured by one item concerning bullying at school: “Other students have exposed me to sexual jokes”. Students who reported that this had happened “2 or 3 times a month” or more often were classified as exposed to sexual harassment at school. Sexual harassment at the school class-level was defined as the school class proportion of students exposed to sexual harassment, reported in per cent. Two-level linear regression analysis was applied.

Results: Sexual harassment was reported by 4% of the 11-year-old boys and 2% of the 11-year-old girls, by 5% of the 13-year-old boys and girls, and by 6% of the 15-year-old boys and girls. Students who had been exposed to sexual harassment had higher levels of psychological complaints (b=2.74, p<0.001). The proportion of students in the school class who had been exposed to sexual harassment was also associated with an increased likelihood of multiple health complaints, even when adjusting for sexual harassment at the student-level, gender and grade (b=0.03, p=0.015).

Conclusions: Sexual harassment is harmful for those who are exposed, but may also affect other students negatively. Thus, a school climate free from sexual harassment will profit all students.

Studies of everyday care? Interactive drama workshops as intervention and research method
Jelmer Brüggemann
Linköpings universitet
I will start by situating this session in a recent project I worked in, that focused on situations in which care professionals identify patients being neglected, offended, or abused. In that project, interactive drama workshops with care professionals, building on “”forum play”” (Brüggemann & Persson, 2016; Österlind, 2011), were organized in collaboration with a hospital clinic. These workshops work with local understandings and participants’ collectively explored courses of actions in what they together define as problematic situations relevant to the topic. The workshop series was organized with a twofold aim. First, together with the clinic management, it was designed as an educational intervention that would offer care professionals individual and collective insights in what can be at stake in these types of situations, and how they can be prevented or dealt with in constructive ways. Second, the workshops were used to collect ethnographic material that enabled analyses of relevant processes and strategies. A result of these analyses was the development of “”navigation work”” as a useful concept to grasp professionals’ work in problematic, potentially abusive care situations (Brüggemann, Persson, & Wijma, 2019).

As a spin off from this work, I will in this session discuss a number of methodological and epistemological questions related to the use of interactive drama in sociological studies of care. How does interactive drama about complex care situations relate to everyday care practices? How do observations of interactive drama differ from observing care professionals in clinical settings or talking about their work in interviews? And how can interactive drama, as intervention and research method, contribute to the improvement of care?

Quality for whom? Association between self-rated health and education – exploring moderating effects of quality in primary healthcare in 22 OECD countries
Maria Forslund
Stockholms universitet
This paper analyses the relationship between general self-rated health and educational attainment in 22 affluent countries. Exploring the service side of the welfare state, the paper analyses the moderating effect of quality in primary healthcare. Data from European Social Survey (ESS) round 1-8, year 2002-2016, is pooled and matched with data on healthcare quality from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Using a three-level logistic model, the results confirm that education level is a strong predictor for self-rated health: men and women with higher education rate their health higher compared to those with lower education.

Further, the association between education and health is strengthened over time, hence the most pronounced differences in self-rated health in relation to education is found among the eldest respondents. The moderating effect of healthcare, in terms of association between self-rated health and education over the lifetime, men and women with the highest education level benefit the most from high quality in primary care. The results are interpreted in line with the cumulative disadvantage theory where the effect of a resource, here education, grows over time, increasing inequalities between individuals as they age. A possible explanation to why the highest educated benefit most from high quality healthcare is that these men and women have higher ‘health literacy’. Having higher health literacy, these men and women are better equipped to seek treatment and follow recommendations from healthcare providers.

Exploring social meanings attached to rational use of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in the Swedish antimicrobial stewardship discourse
Isis Marie Aimée Lindfeldt
Uppsala universitet
Sweden is acclaimed internationally for its peculiar antibiotic stewardship. The country has a low rate of antibiotic prescription and antibiotic usage in comparison with its European counterparts. However, despite its commendable efforts and robust antibiotic stewardship, there are still significant disparities in antibiotic prescription and antibiotic use between regions. Besides, the rate of antibiotic resistance is rising. This paper explores and discusses the social meanings attached to the concepts of rational use of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in the Swedish antimicrobial stewardship discourse. Prudent, responsible and wise use of antibiotics has been preconized in global measures and interventions that are designed to curtail and curb antibiotic resistance worldwide. Yet, these programs and interventions tend to overlook and disregard the social aspects and dynamics of antibiotics that are often non- medical driven.

This paper assesses the social meanings associated with the concepts of rational use of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in four strategic documents that has been instrumental in the implementation of the Swedish antimicrobial stewardship for a period of 15 years. A discourse analysis approach is used in the analysis of the key documents. The results from the analysis indicate that the terminologies used in the antibiotic stewardship language and vocabulary to advocate for optimization of antibiotic use are ambivalent. There is an assumption that the target group has a collective understanding in order to disseminate the message devised. The terminologies are applied interchangeably and seldom reflectively. Further, they shift and vary over time.

A striking observation was made in the analysis of the documents. The key documents do not explicitly address the social aspects of antibiotic usage and antibiotic resistance. It is argued further in the paper; that the ambivalence in the stewardship rhetoric might give rise to personal interpretations that can in return lead to undesired actions influencing optimization of antibiotic use. Therefore, there is an urgent need to communicate in clear and less ambivalent terms while advocating for optimization of antibiotic use. Tackling AMR also requires looking beyond the biomedical perspective and including social aspects of AMR.

Dementia and communication: A multimodal, multisensorial perspective
Ali Reza Majlesi
Stockholms universitet

Based on contemporary research on dementia, and more specifically from a sociointeractional perspective, this study provides empirical data to argue for the significance of a variety of communicative resources in care practices for people with dementia. The data consists of video recordings of various types of daily activities in an elderly care home. I base my theory and method on ethnomethodology and conversation analysis and focus on face-to-face interaction between caregivers and people with dementia when accomplishing their daily routines. The daily routine activities are part of care practices in the care home which often include hygiene activities, meal providing activities, medical treatment activities, leisure activities including also daily motion activities and table-talk.

I argue how achieving care practices is an observable and reportable action, which is demonstrably also a multimodal and a multisensorial practice: a nexus of communicative resources such as talk, gesture, gaze, touch, etc. to constitute a recognizable practice in the abovementioned activities. A care practice involving people with dementia is often shaped within haptic frameworks involving embodied engagement of caregivers and the person with dementia. The embodied engagement of the participants in their daily activities often turns such dyad interactions into joint activities which are consequential for care practices. The study, thus, provides insights for care practitioners and, also, has pedagogical implications for care providers as well as prospective students in health education programs to raise awareness about possible challenges and also some situated solutions regarding providing care for people with dementia.

Mimicking the market to defeat the market: the challenges of an internal temporary employment agency at a Swedish university hospital
Chris Mathieu
Susanne Boethius
Lunds universitet
A major challenge for hospitals in Sweden, as elsewhere, is the shortage of trained staff, mainly nurses, willing to work under current employment conditions (SCB 2017:3). To offer sufficient medical care, personnel from temporary work agencies (TWAs) are used. This is expensive for hospitals and also prevents a sustainable workforce from emerging in hospital wards, with ensuing treatment and care quality, making it a goal for hospitals to minimize or eliminate the use of commercial TWAs.

The aim of this paper is to analyzes the challenges and paradoxes encountered by a Swedish university hospital operating an internal temporary work agency (ITWA). The ITWA is a market-mimicking response, providing security for both the hospital, via a workforce permanently employed by the hospital deployable across the hospital, and employees by offering both permanent employment as well as better conditions and workplace mobility.
We use a case study approach (Byrne & Ragin 2009) including document analysis and interviews with managers and employees, the ITWA’s organizational operation and institutional facilitation and limitations are analysed along with employees’ subjective motivations and job quality experiences.

Though seemingly an optimal solution, mimicking the market as a hybrid has paradoxes, limitations and challenges. A sustainability paradox is that the ITWA is premised on a situation where trained and experienced medical staff, who previously were permanent employees on wards work for the ITWA; a type of employees that the ITWA cannot produce itself. Working for the ITWA becomes at one and the same time a means of showing solidarity with the public healthcare system and public employment, while also striving for better material and temporal conditions. For the employees of the ITWA it also becomes a means of “adventure” – experiencing a wide range of work-settings, and tasks. Employees of the internal TWA lead a hybrid and ambiguous existence at the workplace due to their mobility. They are at the same time “non-market” temporary workers, but known by their permanent colleagues to enjoy comparatively better employment conditions, and freed from workplace conflicts and “office-politics” associated with permanent employment on wards (Palukka and Tiilikka, 2011).

The will of Congress? Permissive regulation and the strategic use of labeling for the anti-influenza drug Relenza
Shai Mulinari
Lunds universitet

Through an analysis of the FDA’s approval of the controversial anti-influenza drug Relenza (zanamivir), we interrogate distinct social scientific theories of pharmaceutical regulation. We investigate why, despite internal negative opinions and an Advisory Committee’s non-approval recommendation, the FDA approved Relenza in the late 1990s. Based on a close reading of FDA documents, we show how agency officials guided the manufacturer’s analyses and participated in constructing a tenuous argument for approval.

We show how regulators may strategically design drug labels that can justify their permissive regulation. We consider the explanatory power of official accounts and alternative, partially overlapping, theories of pharmaceutical regulation in the Relenza case, and develop new insights into the institutional dynamics of regulator- industry relations. We find little or no evidence that the FDA was primarily driven by public health concerns, pressure from disease-based patient activism, or a consumerist and neoliberal regulatory logic, although some of these explanations provided managers with convenient rhetoric to rationalize their actions. Rather, we argue that the Relenza case highlights contradictions between a scientific culture at FDA, conducive to rigorous product evaluations, and the agency’s attempts to accommodate higher-level political (i.e. Congress) and industry demands conducive of permissive regulation – consistent with some aspects of reputational and capture theories, as well as with corporate bias theory.

Tackling hermeneutic injustices in clinical communication: Narrative elicitation in person-centred care
Öncel Naldemirci
Umeå Universitet

The increasing popularity of the term “person-centred” in the healthcare literature and a wide range of ideals and practices that it implies highlight need for a more holistic health care provision. The impetus is to encourage patients to construe and express their idiosyncratic illness experiences and to assume their capabilities and responsibilities. The GPCC (University of Gothenburg Centre for Person-centred Care) framework developed in a Swedish context conceived and suggested narrative elicitation as an important clinical practice in transition to person-centred care. Initiating the clinical communication by inviting people to tell their stories, as in similar narrative-based approaches, has been considered to overcome actual and potential inequalities in clinical communication.

How narrative elicitation can succeed to address social, cultural, and economic inequalities and prejudices in clinical communication requires further research. However, it is possible to argue that narrative elicitation makes persistent yet often subtle and unseen problems in clinical communication visible. By referring to Fricker’s conceptualisation (2006), we argue that narrative elicitation may be one way to tackle testimonial injustice by giving voice to previously silenced groups yet it is not enough to erase the unequal distribution of hermeneutical resources available and immediately intelligible for the interlocutor. This type of injustice risks shaping the content and contours of narrative elicitation. In this article, by drawing upon an observational study on narrative elicitation on an internal medicine ward and vignette-based focus-group interviews with nurses, our aim is to point to some extrinsic problems of narrative elicitation in healthcare settings, namely structural and positional inequalities reflecting on narrative resources and credibility and intelligibility of patients.

Health orientation towards home: a conceptual compass for health work in the 21th century?
Pelle Pelters
Stockholms universitet
This theoretical exploration is a spin-off of a review on health promoting integration-interventions (Pelters et al., under review). The review indicated that interventions initiated by host cultural organizations might be afflicted by a too narrow focus on Western understandings of health with their individualizing, moralizing and biomedicalized stance, thus neglecting home cultural, relational understandings of health, as provided by migrant-driven organizations. Similar effects related to age and class were described, leading to potential resistance towards a health work based on the above-mentioned Western health views. Considering culture a setting that habitually directs us towards certain ways of thinking, feeling and behaving the aim is to explore the idea of health as a culturally rooted orientation. This conceptual approach might expand the horizon of understanding regarding health as a basis for health work in present-day multicultural societies. Tendencies toward resistance might thus be mitigated by broadening the scope of health work.

This conceptual exploration uses queer, postcolonial and phenomenological theorists’ works (e.g. Ahmed, Svenaeus, Bhabha) an drelates to home-making processes as discussed in migration studies to outline the concept of “health orientation”.
A tentative understanding of a health orientation toward home is suggested: With every (health decision) step on our way in life, we create paths of health practice that gain embodied familiarity each time we repeat the same (cognitive, behavioral, emotional …) action. Thus, a health orientation is established that conveys a sense of home, i.e. security, familiarity and confidence. As existing paths are, however, easier to follow, powerful health narratives and practices are more likely consolidated than alternative roads to health. Such an orientation-like understand of health, based on notions of health as identity-forming ‘doing’, is aware of and includes questions of power/normativity as well as postmodern healthistic insecurities and ambivalences.

Att skapa välbefinnande i sårbarhet – erfarenheter från 3 forskningsprojekt
Pelle Pelters
Ali Resa Majlesi
Petra Roll Bennet
Sociologidagarna motiveras med frågan om hur vi kan använda vår sociologiska verktygslåda för att bättre föreställa oss en ny väg framåt gällande befintliga samhällsutmaningar. En av dessa utmaningar är tveklöst att stödja människor i olika former av hälsorelaterad sårbarhet, dvs. människor som genom sina hälsorelaterade uttryck riskerar att utsättas för fysiska, mentala och sociala konsekvenser. Hälsorelaterad sårbarhet är ett angeläget forskningsområde, då moraliska påbud om ofelbar hälsosamhet och friskhet är påfallande i postmoderna hälsosamhällen. Exempel när hälsorelaterade sårbarheter kan uppkomma är bland annat i hälsorelaterade förändringar, som demens, kroppslig transformation och sårbarhet som ett intersektionellt fenomen.

Det första projektet handlar om människor med demenssjukdom i mitt-fas eller senare stadier av sjukdomen som bor i vård- och omsorgboende. Projektet syftar till att undersöka de svårigheter personer med demens har i samarbete med andra personer, och hur det är möjligt att öka deras förmåga till samarbete. Genom videoetnografi och etnometodologisk konversationsanalys visar projektet att trots sjukdomen är människor med demens kapabla att vara aktiva i olika verksamheter. För att minska sårbarheten gäller det ofta att inkludera människor med demens i vardagliga aktiviteter och där hantera deras delaktighet stegvis i mindre delar av aktiviteter. Det görs genom att skapa en stödjande miljö där personerna kan använda sina kvarvarande sociala och kommunikativa resurser och uttrycka sitt aktörskap och sin identitet. Oavsett framgång i genomförandet av vardagliga aktiviteter leder stödjande kommunikationer och samarbete till aktiv delaktighet som ökar välbefinnandet.

Det andra projektet handlar om kirurgisk bröstförstoring. Projektet bygger på data från ett webbforum om kosmetisk kirurgi. I forumtrådar där argument för varför kvinnor väljer att förstora sina bröst är i fokus, analyseras vad kvinnorna lyfter fram som skäl till sitt beslut och hur de som deltar stöttar varandras argument. Beslutet att genomgå bröstförstoring tycks vara förknippat med upplevelser av att kroppen inte speglar hur de känner sig inuti. Transformationen leder på så sätt till att det yttre och inre hänger samman, vilket skapar ett välbefinnande. Den stöttande kommunikationen bekräftar ofta upplevelserna och forumet utgör på så sätt ett sammanhang där sårbarheten inför och efter ingreppet kan minskas.

Ett tredje projekt tittar på hbtq+-nyanlända som är medlemmar i ”RFSL Newcomers”, en grupp för och med asylsökande, papperslösa och nyanlända hbtq+-personer. Sårbarheten hos gruppen är intersektionellt grundad i etnicitet/migrationsstatus, sexuell orientering och/eller könsidentitet. ”RFSL Newcomers” erbjuder sociala aktiviteter och medmänskligt stöd och verksamheten syftar till att stärka medlemmarna. I studien fokuseras hälsodiskursen inom RFSL Newcomers och erfarenheterna av att vara en nyanländ hbtq+-flykting. I intervjuer beskriver personerna en utvecklingsprocess från livshotad i hemlandet till framtidshopp i Sverige. Välbefinnandet hos medlemmarna visade sig vara en frihetsdiskurs: att må bra betyder att vara fri; trygghet, bekräftelse och tillhörighet som samspelande diskurser skapar frihet. Studien visar att det sociala sammanhanget ligger till grund för sårbarheten men även är platsen där den kan bemästras.

I samtliga tre projekt synliggörs sårbarhet och välbefinnande när det gäller förändringar i hälsa. Det sociala sammanhanget möjliggör en form av trygghet och ”hemkänsla” som minskar sårbarheten. Vårt bidrag kommer därför argumentera mot hälsodiskurser och hälsorelaterade verksamheter med fokus på individualistiska, ofta fysiologisk inriktade åtgärder. Studierna visar tillsammans på betydelsen av sociala sammanhang som hälsoåtgärder. Sammanhang och verksamheter där ensamhet, kränkningar och stigmatisering motverkas kan därmed bidra till hälsosamhet och till en mer jämlik hälsa – detta är budskapet från vår sociologiska verktygslåda.

15 Miljö- och risksociologi

Kontaktperson: Rolf Lidskog (rolf.lidskog@oru.se)

Regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive elements of the institutional misfit in the governing of flood risk
Per Becker
Lunds universitet
Flood risk is a great global concern that is not only affecting developing countries, but threatens to undermine sustainable development also in the most affluent advanced liberal democracies2. Floods tend not to be bounded by geopolitical, administrative, organisational, or other socially constructed borders, requiring flood risk to be jointly governed by networks of actors. The patterns of social relations among these actors are therefore fundamental for society’s capacity to reduce risk and influential voices have long argued the importance of fit between the biophysical basis of an issue and the institutional arrangements of actors engaging in its governance.

This paper investigates this “problem of fit” in the governing of flood risk, based on a case study of flood risk mitigation in Höje River catchment area in Southern Sweden. Analysing a unique dataset comprising 217 interviews with all individual formal actors actively engaged in flood risk mitigation in the catchment area, illuminates a clear rift between the hydrological system behind flood risk and the institutional arrangements for its governing. This rift is not only visible along the borders of the municipalities composing the catchment area, but also of the spatial planning areas within them. Using a new institutionalism lens, the paper deliberates on regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive elements that align to lock the governing of flood risk into a state of fragmentation, which, if not addressed, continues to undermine society’s ability to anticipate and adapt to the expected escalation of flood risk in a changing climate.

Energiomställning i det offentliga rummet – Elfordon som social praktik
Karin Edberg
Linköpings universitet
Förändrade energibehov utgör, vid sidan av nya sätt att producera och lagra energi på, led i målsättningen att ställa om energisystemet och andra klimatrelaterade mål. Utifrån perspektivet att efterfrågan snarare gäller den service som energi möjliggör än energin i sig (Shove & Walker 2014) är det omöjligt att separera energibehov från sociala praktiker, eller betrakta behoven som bortkopplade från sociala arrangemang i allmänhet (Rinkinen & Shove 2019:8). Projektet ämnar därför undersöka hur vardagliga energirelaterade praktiker uppstår, förändras och standardiseras liksom hur de inramas, med målsättning att förstå hur de kan bli mer hållbara. Vidare undersöks relationen mellan praktiker och policys på området.

Ökningen av andelen eldrivna fordon (såsom elcyklar, elbilar och elsparkcyklar) utgör konkreta exempel på energiomställningen och fungerar som utgångspunkt i det föreslagna projektet. Fordonen innebär nya praktiker på individ- och samhällsnivå. De kan exempelvis förväntas ersätta åtminstone kortare resor med konventionella bilar, med potentiella hälsovinster för användarna som följd. På samhällsnivå innebär både elsparkcyklar, elcyklar och elbilar en förändrad gatubild och potentiellt påverkas trafikrytm och olycksfallsfrekvenser. Exempelvis måste gångtrafikanter förhålla sig till att cyklar och sparkcyklar kör fortare i uppförsbackar, och förare av konventionella bilar till att parkeringsplatser reserverats för laddning av elbilar. Lagstiftare måste besluta hur fordonen ska definieras och tjänstepersoner måste ta hänsyn till fordonen i samhällsplaneringen. Vidare finns påtagliga miljö- och klimatfördelar med fordonen, även om dessa kan ifrågasättas när tillverkning av beståndsdelar såsom batterier tas med i beräkningen. Ersätts promenader eller konventionell cykling är också miljövinsten mindre – liksom hälsovinsterna för den enskilde.

Nya och förändrade energirelaterade praktiker kan springa ur policys uppsatta på lokal, nationell eller internationell nivå, men kan också växa fram dynamiskt och kräva nya regelverk som reglerar dem. Praktiker och policys förändras därför i samverkan. Projektet syftar därför till att skapa kunskap kring hur nya standarder växer fram, konsolideras och förändras och hur insatser bör designas för att uppnå mer hållbara praktiker.

Syftet skulle också vara att bidra med ny kunskap om relationen mellan energirelaterade praktiker, inramningar av energikonsumtion samt besläktade policys och att därigenom utveckla ett teoretiskt ramverk som kan appliceras även på andra energirelaterade samhällsförändringar. På politisk nivå inramas exempelvis elcykeln i klimattermer (se t.ex. förordning SFS 2017–1317). Användare och andra aktörer kan dock förmodas förknippa elcykeln också med hälsoaspekter, komfort, ekonomi eller livsstil snarare än miljö och klimat. Hur påverkas inramningen av sparkcykeln som miljövänlig, hälsobringande och diskret av att eldrivna varianter introducerats? En ökad kunskap om hur olika inramningar av de eldrivna praktikerna samspelar ger bättre förutsättningar för implementering av policys på området. Detta är relevant inte minst i relation till målsättningar om hållbar utveckling. De nya praktiker som fordonen för med sig öppnar dessutom upp för en diskussion om hur dominerande inramningar av transporter uppstår, och därigenom också för frågor om praktiker och makt. I en vidare mening bör därför också dominerande definitioner och inneboende konflikter i själva begreppet hållbar utveckling diskuteras, liksom begreppets betydelse för olika aktörer. Hur hanterar exempelvis kommunala aktörer intressekonflikter mellan sociala, ekonomiska och miljörelaterade aspekter av persontransporter? I tider av klimatförändringar, politiska målsättningar att effektivisera energianvändningen och minska efterfrågan på energi är ämnet ytterst relevant.

Användandet av elfordon i två regioner, en storstad och en mindre ort, kommer analyseras och olika material samlas in i syfte att fånga fenomenets komplexitet. Intervjuer, individuellt och i fokusgrupper, kommer att genomföras med användare, offentliga aktörer, fordonsförsäljare och intressegrupper. En viktig del av datainsamlingen är också observationer på offentliga platser och dokumentstudier. Studien kommer att bidra med kunskap om elfordon, dessas potentiella roll i energiomställningen samt med generell kunskap om relationen mellan policys, praktiker och inramningar.

The next generation of experts. Institutional opportunities and obstacles when socializing early-career experts
Karin Gustafsson
Örebro universitet
By gathering, assessing, and in policy-relevant ways communicating the world’s expertise on climate change and the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) are essential to global environmental governance. As leading epistemic authorities in their respective fields, these organizations and their experts hold great responsibility and power. To uphold their expertise, these organizations have a constant need for introducing and socializing new experts into their work. Understanding what this socialization process entails is important both for the organizations themselves in improving their work to contribute to the development of a sustainable future and for the general understanding of the processes that inform and influence environmental policies and management.

The combination of organizational similarities and differences between IPCC and IPBES offers a great opportunity to explore different strategies in how to create expertise and how to socialize a new generation of early-career experts. By comparing the IPCC and the IPBES, this study aims to provide knowledge of institutional opportunities and obstacles in the process of shaping new experts in international expert organizations. In particular the study focus on the socialization of early-career scholars.

The analysis is based on empirical material consisting of official IPCC and IPBES documents, interviews, questionnaires, and participant observations. The study provides knowledge of importance to mobilize and coordinate experts to contribute to the development of a sustainable future, as well as contribute to the important and urgent discussion on how to produce policy-relevant knowledge to inform and influence environmental policies.

Living alone: understanding the environmental impacts of social trends
Tullia Jack
Malmö universitet

Human population has wide ranging and often negative consequences for the natural environment. Population stability and decreasing fertility have thus been heralded as promising for sustainability. However, household size has been decreasing steadily the world over, since the 1980s. Scandinavia leads this trend, with over a third of total households consisting of single residents. As a result of more people living alone with associated higher consumption, slowing population growth has resulted in neither fewer residences nor decelerating human impact on the environment. This proposal aims to investigate the trend toward living alone and create new knowledge about environmental impacts of different household configurations, drivers for different occupancy trends and alternative sustainable housing configurations. The research will be carried out in three phases, firstly by using existing population, housing and consumption databases; secondly be interviewing high impact single residencies and low impact residencies; and finally by looking at low impact household configurations in-depth. This will provide new knowledge on: how different household configurations impact sustainability; why people choose to live in different various configurations; and drivers and barriers for sustainable alternatives. This knowledge will be valuable for policy makers planning sustainable urban environments.

Gender and public views about climate change in Sweden: The role of gender identity and gender ideology
Ingemar Johansson
Umeå universitet
Previous research on public views about climate change shows that citizens’ beliefs and their willingness to act are structured by sex, showing that men are more likely to be skeptical about the reality of climate change compared to women. Moreover, previous studies have shown that men with conservative values, ‘industrial/breadwinner’ masculinities, are especially likely to display climate change denial/skepticism, suggesting that social dimensions of a person’s biological sex, such as gender identity and gender ideology, play a crucial role in shaping knowledge and action. While most previous studies have been conducted in Anglo-Saxon contexts, there are good reasons to expect this to be culturally specific and thus not necessarily generalizable across institutional contexts.

In this study, we investigate Sweden, a country with comparable progressive and gender equal norms. We use data from the Swedish Welfare State Study, collected in the year 2018 that constitute a representative sample of the adult population in Sweden. The results show that while a traditional gender ideology is associated with greater climate change skepticism among both men and women, this effect is almost double in size among men. However, a strong gender identity, that is, feeling that one’s gender is an important part of one’s personality, is associated with less skepticism, but only among women. The results are discussed in relation to previous research.

How Would They Care: A furniture retail chain’s construction of consumer interests in circular economy
Mikael Klintman
Heather Schoonover
Lunds universitet
In a world where the political actors often fail to materialise their promises of more far-reaching policies aimed at reducing environmental harm, notions of the sustainable firm, sustainable consumption engaged in ‘the circular economy’ often dominate the idea of an environmental state. Retailing firms (and any business with direct and indirect connection to end consumers) regularly need to make decisions on to what extent they should invest in less environmentally harmful products and processes. This is their inescapable reality in light of expressed environmental concerns in the general public, signals from NGOs, and scenarios of future stricter, policies.

‘The general public’ refers not only to our role as consumers (on whom retailers are entirely dependent), but also as citizens (indirectly influencing the environmental policies and restrictions of industrial practices). Therefore, it is fair to assume that retailers are immensely interested in how stated citizen-consumers’ environmental concerns are related (if at all) to their current and future consumer practices.

Previous social scientific studies on how organisations in the market or political realm understand the general public, citizens and/or consumers include the common lifestyle perspective and preoccupation with public attitudes (a perspective criticised by Soneryd & Uggla as well as by, for instance, Shove). Studies of how private firms, including retailers, understand consumers in light of environmental challenges include analyses of ethical marketing and examinations of consumer surveys, where the latter have been done by retailers, for instance about consumers’ hypothetical ’willingness to pay’ for less environmentally harmful products.

Within the latter context, namely retailer perspectives on consumers in the context of environmental challenges, this paper aims to compare how a large retail chain (in furniture) discusses consumer concerns comprehensively, with regard to how to manage environmental challenges, in particular through ‘the circular economy’.

Empirically, we make use of written material from meetings in the furniture retail chain, content that we have been permitted to analyse in a research programme entitled MISTRA Sustainable Consumption (MISTRA SC). This material includes comments by the company of the results from qualitative studies done directly with consumer groups.

Theoretically, we will let the empirical material above guide us by comparing the company’s statements about consumers with sociological concepts and insights in environmental and consumer sociology. In particular, we assume that the empirical material will lead us to compare the data with sociological findings of the hybrid of the citizen-consumer, limitations as individuals, embeddedness in institutions, structures, etc.

In the analysis, we will compare the retail chain’s framings of consumer concerns and sustainable consumption with the literature mentioned above.

Our assumption is that this analysis will provide us not only with differences between the retailers’ consumer views. As both sociologists and the private sectors have access to hands-on-data and experiences of consumers in the context of sustainable development challenges, some similarities are also likely.

Finally, we will discuss how to interpret the different understandings of consumers between the retail sector and sociology. Would both ‘parts’ be helped by learning from each other? Or does, for instance, the retail sector create constructs of empowered, environmentally concerned consumers, constructs that might deviate from sociological insights but that — through sophisticated marketing and media attention repeating their construct – will become a true prophecy, by leading consumers the way the business sector wishes?

Rightwing populism and public views on climate change: Nationalism, climate change skepticism, and opposition to climate policy in Europe
Joakim Kulin
Umeå universitet
The recent rise of rightwing populism (RWP) in Europe and the US potentially constitutes a threat to the efforts of mitigating climate change, as RWP politicians and parties often espouse climate change skepticism and oppose climate policies. Meanwhile, the party positions and issue stances of Western European RWP parties have become increasingly characterized by nationalism. We argue that climate change and its solutions come into conflict with core tenets of nationalist ideology.

We use data from the 2016 European Social Survey (ESS) to investigate how nationalist ideology and support for RWP parties influence public beliefs about climate change and support for climate policy. The results show that people who embrace nationalist ideology and vote for RWP parties are more likely to be skeptical about climate change and in particular oppose climate policy. In fact, nationalist ideology is more important for policy support than left-right political ideology and several other factors, such as environmental values and political trust. The results also reveal substantial cross-national differences in the strength of these relationships, as nationalist ideology and RWP voting is more influential in Western European, and particularly Nordic, countries where RWP parties with a nationalist rhetoric have had recent electoral successes.

Expertise, lay/local knowledge and the environment
Rolf Lidskog
Örebro universitet
Environmental expertise is increasingly called for today. Claims for environmental action – be it from governments, environmental movements or private companies – are almost exclusively made with reference to scientific expertise. Environmental expertise is also a crucial factor in the development of environmental discourses and in regulation; as an epistemic authority providing valid knowledge and measures for handling current environmental problems or preventing new ones from occurring.

At the same time and seemingly paradoxical, scientific expertise is also questioned; its capacity to deliver trustworthy as well as relevant knowledge is contested. A reason for this is that the complexity of environmental issues makes it hard for specialized expertise to provide relevant and robust knowledge base for regulation and decision-making. Another reason is that the societal development has made expertise spatially and socially distributed in society, thereby eroding earlier boundaries between experts and lay people.

This situation constitute the point of departure for this paper, which critically discusses the meaning and implications of expertise. Starting with an exploration of the conceptual meaning of expertise, it than discusses why a broadening of expertise – comprising other forms of knowledge than scientific ones – is demanded. In the next section, it take this discussion a step further by asking five fundamental questions: what to include, who to include, why include, how to include and with what implications. Thereafter the chapter discusses important issues for the future, not least the conditions and opportunities for developing socially robust expert advice. Here it is argued that it is decisive that expertise is not restricted by predefined problems, but that it serves to open up critical deliberations on how society works, social causes behind environmental destructions and political opportunities to transform society to become more sustainable.

Crossing The Boundaries? On The Fate Of Indigenous And Local Knowledge In Biodiversity Assessments
Erik Löfmarck
Örebro universitet
In its knowledge assessments, the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) aims to combine scientific knowledge and indigenous and local knowledge (ILK). The many participatory, epistemological and ontological challenges related to working across knowledge systems are well documented by now, and the main picture that emerges is that science typically dominates the playing fields for such boundary work: ILK has a hard time getting thru. In addition, the knowledge that emerges within IPBES and similar endeavors then needs to get thru to policy makers. Thus, ILK needs to cross two important boundaries in order to be influential.

Drawing on a document study of the seven knowledge assessments produced by IPBES to date, this paper examines the fate of ILK in IPBES’ biodiversity knowledge assessments. This is a two-step analysis: First, it examines how ILK is represented in the technical reports. Second, it compares how these representations figure in the corresponding summary for policymakers.

The results indicate that while ILK figure is fairly well integrated in the technical assessments, it is often “lost in translation” when summaries are produced. Particularly striking is that ILK is never described as well-established knowledge when qualitative descriptions of certainty are stated. The main lessons to be learned is that participatory challenges figure across the whole process of synthetizing knowledge, including the textual production of assessment reports.

De-risking mineral exploration projects: Prediction work and justifications of predictive correctness and the desirability of future mining operations
Tobias Olofsson
Uppsala universitet
This paper analyzes how mineral explorationists justify their predictions of the economic and socio-environmental minability of future mining operations. Justifications are claims made about the worth of an object or actor and relies on references to some value or values. One example of this is how the measured quantity and quality of mineralized material make up a set of values that motivate further exploration work. The result of explorationists valuation, in other words, creates values that are employed in justifying why one project ought to be closed down while another should be granted further attention.

However, while the justification of a project’s potential can be based on references to the measured qualities of the mineralized deposit, justifications of predictions are trickier. A prediction’s foremost quality is, arguably, its correctness. Predictions are, after all, answers to questions about the future and correct answers are generally better than incorrect answers as they help in negotiating uncertainty. However, as the future in which the prediction is to emerge as having been correct or incorrect is yet to materialize, justifications of predictive correctness needs to be based on something else than a direct correspondence between a prediction and the predicted future.

This paper outlines how explorationists justify the products of their prediction work and it does so focusing on two different forms of justification. The first of these forms are justifications based on claims related to values to do with accurate and precise mapping and modeling of mineralized deposits. In mineral exploration, projects are, to use explorationists’ vocabulary, “”de-risked”” by investments in the quantity and quality of data and the de-risking process supports better predictions. The second form of justification is justifications of the desirability of the futures outlined in predictions. The predictions made by explorationists do more than describe potential futures, they also seek to persuade others of the desirability of the future depicted in predictions. While the first form of justification is to do with the worth of a prediction as a correct description of the future, the second form is not only descriptive but also productive in how it justifies why this future should become the future present.

The elephant in the room: Restating ‘the political’ in science-policy debates and the case of the IPCC’s 1.5°C report
Adam Standring
Örebro universitet
This paper outlines what can be gained analytically by developing a poststructural political ontology of climate debates. The question of how science becomes policy has understandably dominated the debate on climate change and in seeking to answer that question various scholars have regularly employed the idea of politics to understand how certain frames, narratives and policies have succeeded while others have failed (Hughes & Vadrot, 2019). Explaining these events, scholars have typically deployed an ontic notion of politics (Beveridge, 2017; Beveridge & Koch, 2017) in which politics is viewed as a process, analytically distinguishable from the spheres (processes) of both science and policy and which can thus be empirically isolated. It is this theoretical grounding which allows scholars to speak of particular temporal and institutional instances in which science is (or may be) politicized by policy or whereby policy is (or may be) depoliticized by science (Beck, 2012; Sudqvist et al, 2017).

One unfortunate consequence of this is a tendency to universalise science and knowledge, constructing it as a neutral sphere and seeing it as apart from broader struggles and the exercise of power, exclusion and hegemony – except in those conditions when politics is applied. As Mike Hulme has warned (2010), this can lead to a ‘knowledge which erases geographical and cultural difference and in which scale collapses to the global. Rather than the view from nowhere, global kinds of knowledge claim to offer the view from everywhere’ (Hulme, 2010: 559). Politics does not just take place in different spaces or fora but the very nature of the politics made possible is indelibly shaped by the spaces in which it takes place (Dikec, 2005).

The IPCC’s 1.5°C report originates from the results of the Paris Climate Agreement in which countries agreed to limit the global temperature rise to 1.5°C-2.0°C. The IPCC Special Report on 1.5°C change elaborates on this theme to look at what would be the global/regional/local consequences of this change and how the policy goal can be achieved. While report reiterates the conclusions of the Paris Climate Agreement that the policy goal is achievable it does highlight the fact that major and immediate intervention is necessary. In the case of the IPCC Summary we can see that the focus of analysis is broadened and equivalencies are constructed: economic/social justice is indelibly linked to environmental justice both in terms of the negative consequences of climate change but also in terms of the policy solutions offered – e.g. more job; increased energy access; health benefits. Strong links are also drawn with existing logics surrounding sustainable development goals.

Teaching Sociology: Fostering critical thinking within a post-political discourse: sociology and sustainable development 
Ylva Uggla
Örebro universitet
This paper explores the practices and potential challenges of teaching sociology in higher education in relation to sustainable development as a learning object. In times of global environmental change sociology has an important role to play in research and higher education by addressing issues such as societal organization, systems of production and everyday practices, but also by focusing the ways organizations and people perceive and respond to environmental problems. Sociology may encourage students to reflect on such matters, including critical self-reflection in relation to, for example, travelling and consumption patterns in a contemporary society that favors individual freedom and mobility.

Although urgent and important aspects to include in sociology education, teaching related to sustainable development raises several questions. First, sociology is good at raising and answering “who-questions”: who acts, who benefits, who is responsible, etc. and questions about social relations: e.g. how is authority, legitimacy or consensus constructed. However, discussions of sustainable development also urge us to pay attention to questions of what should be sustained and how should it be sustained. This type of questions is often more troublesome to deal with when teaching sociology in higher education. Second, the inclusion of sustainable development as a goal in higher education, implies a problematic balancing between the encouragement of students’ independent critical reflection and the construction of subjects embracing certain values and lifestyles, that may sustain a post-political position towards sustainable development. In this paper, we discuss these questions and exemplify with experiences from education for pre-school teachers and other relevant educations.

16 Politisk sociologi och sociala rörelser

Kontaktpersoner: Magnus Wennerhag (magnus.wennerhag@sh.se), Adrienne Sörbom (adrienne.sorbom@sh.se), Dominika Polanska (dominika.polanska@ibf.uu.se)

Political engagement and the threat of human extinction: Conceptual and theoretical reflections for the climate crisis era
Per Adman
Uppsala universitet
The climate crisis constitutes a severe threat to our future democratic societies. Yet, even though climate protests have become more common lately, most citizens are politically passive as regards climate issues. Why? The first purpose of this paper is to develop hypotheses that answer to this question. Inspiration comes from more conventional theories on political passivity–e.g., resource theory, the civic voluntarism model, and the participation paradox theory–as well as from other fields, such as psychological research on climate denial.

While the first purpose of the paper concerns the right/interest aspect of democratic citizenship the second purpose revolves around responsibility. Which kind of attitudes and behaviors are democratically motivated in the climate crisis era? I argue that it calls for additional demands on democratic citizens (besides conventional demands such as being politically informed and tolerate the political rights of other societal groups): e.g., accepting peaceful civil disobedience related to the climate crisis (e.g., school strikes), accepting far-reaching decisions on reduction of fossil fuel emissions, and accepting a substantial number of climate refugees. In this part of the paper I also aim to, at least tentatively, discuss possible explanations to variations in such attitudes/behaviors. Again, theoretical inspiration comes from several different research fields, including psychology and social psychology.

The overall aim of the paper is hence to lay ground for a new research agenda on climate engagement, and to develop concepts and hypotheses to use in future empirical studies.

Mistrust, Credibility and Collaboration among Hacktivists: Implications for the Study of Digital Activism
Philip Creswell
Uppsala universitet
It has been over a decade since the first political manifestations of the digital scene dubbed Anonymous. In that time, the hacktivist arena has seen increased policing, high-profile arrests, and the introduction of state actors posing as hacktivists. Engagement in this arena, where actors are anonymous or pseudonymous, introduces challenges for participants because alters may be like-minded participants or something else entirely: federal agents, trolls, or rivals from other networks. Using an analysis of observations in Anonymous chat rooms and interviews with hacktivists, I show that participants respond to these uncertainties by structuring their interactions and organizing public discussions in ways which manage risks from law enforcement, external antagonists and internal rivals. Through codified and openly discussed strategic protection of one’s personally identifying information, as well as subcultural norms of obfuscation through humor, participants signal their assessment of the milieu as risky.

However, many participants also rely on circles of associates and even friends for information, threat assessment, collaborative projects and emotional support. This suggests that while perceptions of risk may increase barriers to cooperation in mediation, it may also lead to individuals developing stronger interpersonal ties with alters. This finding contrasts portrayals of Anonymous as a ‘pure’ example of swarm or crowd behavior online and challenges models of digital activism that focus primarily on technological capabilities. Rather than finding activists who perform fleeting activism and lack social infrastructure, my analysis suggests that activists have developed strong, persistent, collaborative relationships; a social sinew at the core of the swarm. In light of this, scholars should reconsider the dominant views of the Internet and social movements that focus on it as a “weak-tie instrument par excellence.” Furthermore, this case suggests that an interest in the micro-dynamics of digital movements and the role of social ties in mobilization dynamics should be of interest to scholars of digital activism and collective action online.

Becoming Autonomous: Feelings, Paths, and Identities in Joining the Radical Left
Colm Flaherty
Lunds Universitet
Concerns surrounding political participation and democracy have become increasingly prominent. Declining party membership numbers and increasing concerns about polarization forces us to reconsider both how and why individuals take part in politics. This study explores the socialization of individuals into a group or community that remains active participants in the political arena, but which at the same time often adopts non-institutional means of action, namely the radical (autonomous) left in Sweden.

Belonging to the fields of social movement and subculture studies, with an overarching interest in socialization, this study identifies several commonalities in the development of an autonomous, leftist identity. First, individuals often experience a feeling of injustice in a time prior to politics. Utilizing a phenomenological perspective, this feeling is analyzed in its relation to values obtained in early socialization, and discussed as an inability to understand events in the world in relation to the typifications and taken-for-granted assumptions present in an individual’s stock of knowledge. Second, this study looks at common routes into the radical left in Sweden, and discusses differences between those who migrate from institutional politics and those who have never involved themselves in institutional groups. Here, I discuss the role of the surrounding environment and the role of art and literature in upholding, challenging, or providing means of understanding the world. Finally, I explore the construction of identity on both the individual and collective level and more specifically, the relation between the individual and others present in this group. In doing so, I aim to demonstrate the importance of relationality and ties to others in upholding a way of acting in and understanding the world.

This study utilizes qualitative interviews, ethnographic observations, and document analysis in order to argue that we can understand participation in the radical left as not only a rejection of the mainstream, but also as the adaptation of another reality. This study therefore has consequences not only for our understanding of political actions, but also for our understanding of deviance. Furthermore, in exploring identity creation amongst a radical group, this study contributes to our understanding of sources of identity and meaning in an increasingly fragmented society, and ways in which individuals not only reject conventional life narratives, but also adopt or create non-conventional identities.

The effect of community-level factors on solidarity norms – A multilevel analysis
Melis Kirgil
Stockholms universitet
“Political solidarity relates to social movements as well as social change as it describes to what extent people support minority outgroups (and their cause) and their devotion to achieving the desired social change (Neufeld, Starzyk, & Gaucher, 2019). Expressions of political solidarity can influence majority as well as minority group members to feel political solidarity towards (other) minority groups (e.g., Greenwood, 2015; Starzyk, Neufeld, El-Gabalawy, & Boese, 2019). Yet, it remains an open question how expressions of political solidarity in political campaigns affects norms of solidarity. Social norms are multifaceted and present a complex phenomenon, influencing attitudes (e.g., Hohman, Crano, & Niedbala, 2016) and behavior (e.g., Cialdini, Reno, & Kallgren. 1990). Moreover, they are often described as the “glue” or “cement” of society (Elster, 1989) and refer to an unwritten behavioral rule that is followed by individuals in a population (Bicchieri & Mercier, 2014).

The most common classification is between injunctive (what ought to be done) and descriptive norms (what others do; Chung & Rimal, 2012). As social norms are a fundamental element of society, it is important to understand how political solidarity and other community-level factors, such as spatial segregation, local government spending and social networks, interact in such a way that they influence solidarity norms. The current study aims to explore which factors are most influential with regards to social norms on the community-level and under which conditions they are strengthened and weakened.

Against this background, the mixed-methods study explores the conditions under which community-level factors influence descriptive norms on solidarity and how they, in turn, affect prosocial behavior from a multilevel perspective. In total, I examine four community-level factors: political solidarity of the presidential election (Bush vs. Gore in 2000); local government expenditure; political solidarity voiced during the presidential election (Bush vs. Gore in 2000) through local media; social networks; and spatial segregation. Moreover, I focus on two descriptive norms: communities’ prosocial behavior and intermarriage attitudes. Overall, this study comprises three overarching research questions: 1) to what extent do social norms vary across communities? 2) what are the most influential community-level predictors of descriptive norms? and 3) how do they affect individuals’ prosocial behavior?

To answer these research questions, this study uses the 2000 Social Capital Benchmark Survey (SCBS), the government finance database, and computational text analysis of local US daily newspapers. The computational text analysis during the presidential campaign between July to November 2000 (i.e., the timeframe of the SCBS data collection) captures political solidarity on the community level. The control group of the text analysis comprises the level of political solidarity after the presidential campaign between December and February 2001. In this regard, I investigate the effect of political solidarity during the presidential campaign on descriptive social norms. While the government finance database provides insight into local governmental expenditure, the SCBS comprises self-reported data on the community level, social networks, individual beliefs, and behavior across 50 US states.

By using a mixed-methods approach, I develop a multilevel perspective of how community-level factors influence solidarity norms and individuals’ behavior emerges. For example, the effect of political solidarity during the presidential campaign on social norms might be less influential in more heterogonous networks or in communities with less spatial segregation. Gaining a systematic understanding of such social complexities may help to overcome pressing societal problems. For instance, the rising levels of immigration as well as polarized political campaigns on societal issues, such as solidarity towards immigrants or refugees, might limit the ability of these countries to sustain the necessary level of solidarity that is needed to deal with such challenges.

Mobilizing the ‘high-achievers’?
Max Persson
Uppsala universitet
What can sociology of elite education learn from political sociology and the social movement literature? This is the guiding question for this presentation, aiming at developing a conceptualization of elite high schools’ role in the formation of collective identity. This presentation departs from an ethnography of one of Sweden’s most selective high schools. A majority of the students who were followed at the school have grades from compulsory school that qualify them to the top 5 % of the grade distribution. Furthermore, a disproportionate share of them have a background in upper middle- and upper class families.

This project give insights into the identities, practices, and experiences of adolescents statistically primed for elite trajectories. The overall claim of the study is that this school contribute in creating a technocratic elite identity, based on shared identification with meritocratic achievement rather than social class identification. However, as previous research have shown, meritocracy and meritocratic achievement is linked to social class in various ways.

Within sociology of education, schools are often conceptualized as secondary socialization agents, emphasizing the formal and informal socialization of adolescents. Such a perspective put focus on the school as a formal organization and a physical site where socialization takes place. However, in this presentation, attention is drawn to a range of small- and large-scale social processes that contribute in shaping the identity of these adolescents. At the macro level, the school market and increasing school segregation contribute to making school choice not just an educational choice, but also a critical event for expressing and shaping identities. At the meso level, attention is drawn to the school’s attempts to profile the school which is a way to influence the recruitment of future students, the school’s arrangement of formal ceremonies which legitimate an official student identity, as well as to the Student Corpses explicit attempts to create stories and symbols to represent students at the school. At the micro level, interaction rituals and friendship networks structured around school achievement and lifestyles plays a key role. Furthermore, attention is also drawn to how these processes of identity formation sometimes come into conflict with each other, sometimes creating school-level and group-level identities that are incompatible.

How can the notion of collective identity be used to conceptualize the technocratic elite identity mobilized at the school? Do the adolescents develop an awareness of themselves as a unified social group with shared experiences, practices, stories, and symbols? In what ways is such a collective identity linked to the experiences of possibilities for collective action?

In search of urban commons through squatting: lessons from Sweden
Dominika Polanska
Uppsala Universitet
Urban commons have been present in cities long before the financial crisis and have served to de-colonize space from the destructive influence of profit-based forms of urbanization. Urban commons have, based on citizens’ self-organization and collective action, functioned as an alternative to the dichotomy of public- private in creating spaces created, shared and sustained commonly in the cities worldwide. One such practice of resisting commodification and collectively creating spaces is squatting. By taking over buildings or land without authorization, squatters challenge ownership of property and government authority to distribute goods. By commonly creating spaces that build on self-organization and ideas of alternative ways of living in, squatters contribute to the formation of urban commons in the city.

The contemporary part of squatting in Sweden has been unsatisfactory described in research and deserves more attention. Furthermore, the squatting in Högdalen in 2015, and the creation of Högdalens Folket hus, Högdalen People’s Home, has been one of the longer lasting attempts of squatting in the capital city in the 2000s, and is therefore interesting to study. The creation of the squat was also a culmination of collective struggles held in the area since at least 2011 in the resistance to urban renewal and gentrification and part of the local movement for the creation of commonly run social and cultural spaces, with the base in the local self-built social and cultural centre of Cyklopen. Simply put, we are interested in how urban commons are made and regulated in squatting. By specifically focusing on space, time and practices in the creation of commons we aim at contributing to the research on urban commons and squatting, bridging both these traditions, in developing theoretical tools to be used in investigating how commoning practices work and what role space, time and (inter)actions play.

Future Fears: Rationality and the Fashioning of Hope in the Future Industry
Christina Garsten
Adrienne Sörbom
Södertörns högskola
This paper is based on ethnographic work in organization that form part of what we term the Future Industry – such as think tanks, consultancies and governmental bodies – involved in the charting, description and analysis of geopolitical future scenarios. That is to say, an industry explicitly aiming for organizing the future. In the paper we analyse the Future Industry, which we see as serving, feeding into, the emotional streams of contemporary politics and economics. We wish to describe the emotion work the industry undertakes in order to get the attention of its significant others. In the interest of selling beliefs of the future, we suggest that it draws on reason, in the format of science, making its customers sense the pros and cons of the particular future it puts forth. In so doing, it at times may attempt in shaping the future, but what it foremost does, is selling ideas of the future as a commodity.

Rörelsetidskrifter − En genrebeteckning
Sebastian Svenberg
Örebro Universitet
Sociala rörelser lämnar efter sig spår i historien. Spår i form av social eller politisk förändring. Spår i form av idéer som bryter med spridda uppfattningar i sin samtid, eller som med tiden blir en välbekant tankevärld. Men den idévärld som funnits inom rörelser, på historiskt avstånd, kan vi bara komma åt med hjälp av material som i någon mån låter oss göra det. Vad jag vill undersöka i den här texten, är hur läsning av tidskrifter och särskilt det jag vill kalla rörelsetidskrifter, kan vara en metod för att förstå historiska sociala rörelser, dess organisering och idévärld. Det handlar om att tolka de texter som rörelseorganisering lämnar efter sig. För att möjliggöra en sådan läsning vill jag utveckla metoder från sociologen Håkan Thörn och historikern Quentin Skinner.

För att illustrera den här genrebeteckningen så vill jag ge två exempel på rörelsetidskrifter som funnits i den brittiska kooperativa rörelsen under 1800-talet. Denna rörelse utgick från uppstartandet av kooperativ som alternativ till den kapitalistiska ekonomin, både genom initieringen av tidiga utopisamhällen och senare genom produktion- och konsumtionskooperativ där medlemmar äger industrier och butiker tillsammans.

The Geometry of Culture: Analyzing an online radical right community through natural language processing
Anton Törnberg
Göteborgs universitet
This paper investigates cultural change on Stormfront.org: the largest radical right online community in the world. The forum constitutes a dominant hub for radical right activists and groups from across the globe and comprises a space for ideological debate, planning upcoming activities, recruiting new members, and discussions about strategies and tactics. Due to its size and temporality, the forum provides a unique entrance into the discourses and ideologies of the radical right.

This paper takes a novel methodological approach and employs word embedding to study processes of cultural change on this online community. Word embedding is a form of natural language processing (NLP) method that represents semantic relations between words as geometric relationships between vectors in a high-dimensional space, thus operationalizing a relational model of meaning that is arguably consistent with contemporary theories of identity and culture. Just like individuals, social groups and movements often develop a common narrative of self, which is implicit in the identity and expression of its members. By developing a number of specific word embedding methods, the paper studies the cultural self-conception of Stormfront as a community: how it sees itself, and who it defines itself against – its enemies and outgroups. We also study how this self-conception transforms over time and how it was affected by specific events like 9/11 and the elections of Obama 2008 and Trump 2016. Preliminary findings show that Muslims and Arabs increasingly have become associated with immigrants, and how the HBTQ movement over time has become less important as an outgroup, as it became a less contested issue in society overall.

The Counter-Democratic Conflict Market and its Resentful Consumer Culture(s)
Sofia Ulver
Lunds Universitet

How are the market and consumer culture involved in ongoing political polarization in the late capitalist world? The social and cultural landscape in Western democracies is increasingly depicted as politically polarized and vibrating with conflict, but in sociology of consumption and markets this development has passed relatively unnoticed. This paper takes departure in political historian Rosanvallon’s counter-democracy theory, and explores the polarizing discourses on specifically multicultural advertising in a resentful consumer culture. This is done through a combination of quantitative social media analytics (SMA) and qualitative netnography at Swedish social media forums. The findings and discussion contribute to sociological research on political consumption in general and to critical marketing research on consumer resistance in particular.

Diaspora turn in action: evolution and politization of diasporic organizational network (prel.)
Sofiya Voytiv
Stockholm Universitet

Studies at the nexus of diasporic political engagement and armed conflict in the homeland are limited. Usually, research is focused on the militant linkages diaspora organizations might have with the country of origin, including through financial aid and military participation. Moreover, most studies assume a-historical existence of such groups and reduce them to histories of migration. This article tracks the evolution and politicization of diasporic organizational field of Ukrainian and Russian organizations in Sweden avoiding such assumptions though the microscopic analysis of cliques and cluster formations between these organizations during late 2013-2016. Using social network analysis and qualitative interviews, I specifically focus on the actor and triad levels in order to uncover the potential mechanisms of decision making of joining a certain triad in the context of war in the homeland. I find that looking at the evolution of the inter-organizational collaboration network allows for accounting of the processes of diasporization in this specific context.

Climate protestors and social class – going beyond the interests of the ’new middle class’?
Magnus Wennerhag
Södertörns högskola
For many decades, the role of social class for political protests was downplayed within social movement research, dismissing older theories’ interest in the role of social grievances for mobilization and instead focusing the role of political opportunity structures, resource mobilization, etc. Later years have witnessed a growing literature showing interest in the role of economic factors and social class for movement mobilization, but this has mainly regarded austerity protests. There is, however, little research available about the role of social class for one of today’s most prominent mobilizations: the climate protests.

When discussed in relation to class, ‘new social movements’ and in particular the environmental movement was previously often regarded as primarily mobilizing the ‘new middle class’, and making political claims going against the interests of organized labor and the ‘old social movements’. In times when climate strikes and other types of climate protests have made environmental concerns a central contentious topic in society, it is thus relevant to scrutinize whether environmental and climate activism is still primarily the domain of the well-educated middle class. Do climate protestors’ social class affect their political behavior and attitudes, for instance their stances towards far-reaching changes for reducing carbon dioxide emissions?

In this article, we analyze survey data for 1,905 protest participants in 13 climate demonstrations in 9 European countries. The data was collected using a common method for surveying the climate protests during the globally coordinated protest day Global Strike for Future on 15 March 2019. In the analysis, we scrutinize what groups of employees and workers that are mobilized during the climate strikes, also paying attention to the occupational class – or class position – of the parents to the many young climate strikers that were mobilized. Apart from class position, we also scrutinize the protestors’ subjective class identity, and how these two aspects of social class correlate. To operationalize class position, we use Oesch’s employment-based class scheme, which allows for taking sector-specific conflicting interests between classes into account. Finally, we analyze the effect of both class position and class identity on the protestors’ attitudes towards traditional socio-economic issues as well as their attitudes in climate issues, including potential conflicts between demands for economic redistribution and demands for fundamental climate policy changes.

Christianity and voting for populist radical right parties in Europe
Weiqian Xia
Stockholm University
Previous studies show that populist radical right (PRR) parties in Europe receive low level of supports from Christian voters, although Christian value is often highlighted in the European radical right agenda. However, the mechanism remains largely untested. The study investigates the factors driving Christian people voting (or not voting) for populist radical right parties across European countries. Christian people’s lower supports on populist radical right is not due to their higher levels of pro-sociality. Instead, Christian religious involvement offers more social integration, which could prevent people from being attracted by the populist radical right agenda. Christian people also show lower levels of anti-immigration attitudes, which also lowers supports to the populist radical right. The study suggests that Christianity serves as an “antidote” to the populist radical right, but the mechanism behind the voting pattern could be multi-dimensional.

17 Religionssociologi

Kontaktperson: Magdalena Nordin (magdalena.nordin@lir.gu.se)

Religiös (il)litteracitet, biomakt och institutionaliserad sjukvård vid livets slut
Daniel Enstedt
Göteborgs universitet 

Med avstamp i ett pågående fältbaserat forskningsprojekt om palliativ vård vid livets slut kommer jag att klarlägga, problematisera och resonera kring några återkommande mönster rörande normer och värderingar i den palliativa vården i Sverige. Det finns en rad explicita riktlinjer och policys som ger uttryck för en personcentrerad vård, där bland annat patienternas/vårdtagarnas önskemål, liv och erfarenheter ska tas i beaktande. Samtidigt existerar delvis andra normer och värderingar i den dagliga vården som är intimt knutna till de traditioner, rutiner och praktiker som personal kroppsliggör i samband med sin yrkesutövning. Av särskilt intresse i denna presentation är relationen mellan den sekulära svenska sjukvården och olika former av religiös tro, praktik och tillhörighet.

Spiritual care in Swedish prisons: Creating and transcending confessional boundaries
Sabina Hadzibulic
Örebro universitet

Although known as one of the most secularized countries in the world, Sweden has a long tradition of spiritual care (andlig vård) in public institutions such as hospitals, prisons and military. Traditionally, it was connected with the dominant Church of Sweden. With the increased immigration in the second half of the 20th century other minority religions entered the scene. Currently, there are around 170 persons offering spiritual care in Swedish prisons.
This paper presents a future research project whose purpose is to examine the ways of negotiation and navigation of religious diversity among inmates with an immigrant background in Swedish prisons provided through spiritual care. By focusing on inmates with backgrounds from the ex-Yugoslav states, who are close in terms of history, culture and language but religiously diverse, the overall aim is to understand better ways in which people work out religious differences in enclosed environments. The specific goals of the project are to explore how spiritual care in the prisons of the Stockholm region is: a) historically developed and adjusted in connection with the growing religious diversity in Swedish prisons; b) performed in different security level prison settings with different social actors, and c) personally experienced by inmates as well as spiritual care providers. In order to reach these goals, a qualitative study supported by a number of statistical and demographic data will be conducted in 10 prisons of different security levels belonging to the Stockholm region.

Religious conversion as a Home-making practice in constructing ontological security
Ebru Öztürk
Mittuniversitetet

Ontological security as Giddens (1991) discuss is about the “absence of anxieties and dangers” (Giddens, 1991, p.38). Migration process, in other words, leaving home to find a new home, is a structural and a psychological process that creates different types of dependencies and makes individuals ontologically insecure (Kinvall 2007). If Home conveys security homelessness conveys anxieties, dangers and insecurities. As bell hooks writes “however it is fragile and tenuous, “homeplace” is the site where one could freely confront the issue of humanization, where one could resist…where we can heal our wounds and become whole” (Hooks, 1990, p.388)

This paper asks if religious conversion as a creator of the new identity is likely to increase ontological security while minimizing the existential anxiety by creating a new Home? The study draws on qualitative interviews I made in Husby church (Husbykyrkan) in Stockholm in 2019 with the Iranian refugees converting from Shi’a Islam to Christianity in Sweden. It addresses the autobiographical narratives of converts through which I want to look closely to the Home making experiences during the conversion process and to the biographical transition into a new social condition. By focusing on the Home-making practices the paper will focus on the possibilities of construction of the ontological security and the stable identities.

As the focus of the study is to narrate the conversion processes of the Iranian refugees on the basis of their own accounts and offering a venue for the dynamic reconstructions of their life experiences, I use the narrative theory to explore the reconstructions of the biographies. Rambo argues that “biographical reconstruction and the resulting narrative give new meaning to a person’s definition of self, identity, relationships, and God…Adopting a new story involves resonating with a story (for whatever reason the new story is relevant to the person), finding or building connections between “my” story and “the” story (Rambo, 99, p.265).

Social Theology – a perspective
Emin Poljarevic
Uppsala universitet
In the last fifteen years a growing body of literature in anthropology and sociology has begun investigating the relationship between theology and the social sciences. These efforts go back to a burgeoning interest of anthropology in Christianity since the 1990s (e.g. Asad 1993, Keane 1997). Yet while these seminal studies mainly saw theological ideas as a way to reflect on anthropology’s own formation or simply as another kind of ethnographic data, Joel Robbins (2003) has called for a much deeper engagement of anthropology with theology, inviting scholars to take the latter as a source to rethink key concepts and theories. In particular, Robbins suggested that theologies should be treated as theories that, like social ones, can ‘get some things right about the world’ (Ibid., 287).

Following this lead, a series of studies has attempted at exploring the relationship between theology and anthropology mainly with regard to Christianity. I suggest exploring the theology-social sciences nexus with particular regard to the relatively understudied perspective coming from Muslim and other religious traditions. This paper intends to demonstrate that theologies ought to be taken seriously if we are to deepen our understanding of human religious experiences and practices. This does not mean engaging in making theological claims about the existence of a transcendental reality, of the prophets, or of other “”religious”” truth claims.

From the social sciences perspective the existence of God is not even a question. Rather, I argue that “social theology” offers a perspective that allows analytical integration of often-forgotten dimensions such as the place of God, religious ontologies and teleologies, in the social science equation. In other words, taking theologies seriously entails considering them as intellectual endeavors that very much like social theories make hypothesis and suggestions about how humans live together in society. In this sense, I understand social theology in broad terms as a set of social theories that take into account the role of religious ontologies, theosophies, and teleologies seriously. Taking theology seriously does not mean rejecting the epistemological project of modernity and find shelter in a renewed (Christian or any other) theology. Instead, it is to reexamine the edifice of modern knowledge, which is based on “secular”, power-laden/instrumental views of human behavior (e.g. exclusive means-to-ends logic of human behavior) to include non-secular theories and discover other perspectives for thinking about human thinking and behavior. By treating theology as social theory, the often-forgotten system of thought that underlie pre-modern conceptions of human individuality, law and social relations are brought back in and used to rethink the models we use to interpret religious behavior today.

In this regard, we can think of theologies as frames of knowledge, which entail the systematization of power-relations between humans usually through sets of ethical principles that find their ultimate source of approval in God. In line with the view of theology as “knowledge,” this helps to complement those views of religion that make of people’s religion ‘a matter of the heart and not of the head’. In this vein, theologies represent processes and configurations through which humans express both ‘intellectual’ and ‘bodily’ forms of existence – a parameter of social reality that indeed needs exploring…

Researching Muslims in schools – methodological challenges and possibilities
Christophe Thorén
Göteborgs universitet
Inequality and discrimination in Swedish high schools have been addressed by previous research from different angles. Yet, the experience of religious minorities in Swedish high schools (gymnasiet) remain under-researched, although these questions are widely discussed.

The curriculum has a fundamentally positive view of cultural diversity and sets out to counter all forms of discrimination. The school’s mission includes the aim that students “find their unique character” and “personal standpoints”. Despite such stated ambitions of an inclusive school, previous research points towards “”othering”” of students of immigrant and minority backgrounds. With particular reference to Muslim students, discrimination and Islamophobia have also been documented.

The school has thus, in many ways, failed to create an inclusive place that prepares young people for their future and professional life. Ove Sernhede (2011) argues that: “”[t]he school is not primarily the arena where young people from the suburbs develop self-respect, knowledge, and understanding of their own time.”” Instead, the municipal schools in the suburbs often contribute to reinforce exclusion. The school’s compensatory mission, to give all pupils an equal education, contribute to social mobility and compensate for variations in socioeconomic status is therefore also shortlived.
With this in mind, this study focuses on Muslim high school students in Gothenburg’s multicultural suburbs, where large proportions of students have a so-called foreign or non-European background and identify as Muslims. Moreover, the areas have lower incomes and higher unemployment and fewer students eligible for high school compared to city averages. This qualitative study of Muslim high school students in Gothenburg’s aim to understand how Muslim identity/Muslimness is constructed among young women and men, using an intersectional approach with a focus on gender, ethnicity, class, and religion.

Furthermore, how such constructions relate to the students’ educational strategies and plans for the future will be addressed.
The study is designed as an interview study with ethnographic elements. The data gained from this work will be analyzed using a grounded theory analysis proposed by Kathy Charmaz. Further theoretical perspectives are drawn from postcolonial theory, intersectional theory and the work on culture and race/ethnicity by Stuart Hall.

The methodological challenges to this research include access, design, and not conducting fieldwork in ways that contribute towards essentialization or stigmatization. The possibilities, however, include shedding light on the experiences of a relatively marginalized group. Many students may feel that their story hasn’t been told, so if trust can be established, there may be an opportunity to gain valuable data.
Methodological challenges and possibilities will be discussed as well as preliminary results from the first phase of fieldwork will be presented.

Religion och diskriminering i Sverige
Erika Willander
Uppsala universitet

Presentationen diskuterar religion i förhållande till diskriminering. Utifrån enkätdata insamlat av SOM-institutet, Göteborgs universitet, mellan åren 1988-2017, redogör presentationen för empiriska observationer över genus, ålder och utbildning inom de största religionstillhörigheterna i Sverige och inom den tilltagande gruppen som inte har någon religionstillhörighet. Dessa resultat ställs i kontrast till uppgifter om inkomster och levnadsnivåer. Utfallet diskuteras utifrån sociologiska perspektiv på diskriminering och tar upp frågor såsom: Vad kan teorier om strukturell och institutionell diskriminering tillföra kunskapen om religionernas roll i samhället?

18 Socialpolitik och välfärdsforskning

Kontaktperson: Kenneth Nelson (kenneth.nelson@sofi.su.se)

Occupational class and political attitudes: The missing piece of social networks
Anton Andersson
Stockholms universitet
Research in political sociology provides a rich descriptive picture of prevailing class divisions in political attitudes, especially concerning attitudes towards economic (re)distribution, but also regarding sociocultural issues. Less is however known about the detailed mechanisms that forge the class-attitude link. In this article, we contribute to filling this knowledge gap by studying the role of class-related social networks in shaping political views. The class position of people in an individual´s social network might affect attitudes through mechanisms such as reference group identification, political communication, and solidarity.

In this paper, we estimate the relation between individual class position, the class composition of the individual’s social network, and political attitudes (economic and sociocultural, respectively) in two countries, the Netherlands and Sweden. Results show that the class composition of social networks partly mediates the relationship between individual class position and political attitudes (both economic and socio-cultural). Furthermore, the class composition of the social network explains additional variation in political views, suggesting that individualized perspectives on class might underestimate the full power of class structure in explaining political attitudes.

The gender gap in old-age poverty is closing, but is it a good news? An analysis of poverty rates of single men and women in 18 OECD countries, 1985-2015
Laure Doctrinal
Stockholms universitet
Recent findings analyzing the gender poverty gap in old-age poverty indicate that the latter seems to close over the past decades in OECD countries. Although characteristics of old-age poverty are well-known, developments of the gender gap in old-age poverty and what may drive them remain so far overlooked in the literature. Pension benefit constitutes the main part within the old-age income package, something that plays a great role in lifting out pensioners out of poverty but affects the degree of gender (in)equalities in economic well-being. As such, the pension benefit reflects the complex interplay between employment history, pension policy and demographic changes.

The purpose of this paper is to submit two of these processes to empirical test. The first process relates to cohort replacement, where younger generations of women enter old age with lower poverty risks than previous cohorts. The second process involves income development after women have entered in old age. Whereas the first process is intrinsically related to labor market developments and increased female labor force attachment, the second process is mostly related to changes in pension policy. Using the LIS dataset, synthetic cohorts of single men and women are followed in 18 OECD countries between 1985 and 2015 from the age of 65 until they turn 80.

Preliminary results show that the gender gap in old-age poverty risks of singles tends to close or to remain stable over time. While a sharper decrease of women’s poverty risks can be related to such a trend in some countries, the substantial increase of single men’s poverty risks in most countries seems to be related to the decrease of the gender gap. Cross-country variations show that there is no obvious link between women’s labor force attachment and the decrease of gender gap in old-age poverty, nor does the role of pension policy appear clearly as the cohorts grow older.

A family-friendly working life? Flexibility, policy usage and work-family conflict among Swedish mothers and fathers
Anne Grönlund
Umeå universitet
Schedule flexibility has been widely promoted as a family-friendly work arrangement (e. g., OECD 2007). Presumably, flexible schedules could facilitate the combination of work and care and allow women remain in full-time work during the childrearing years.

Meanwhile, empirical studies of schedule flexibility and work-family conflict show inconclusive results (e.g., Higgins et al 2014, Allen et al 2013). One reason could be that flexibility can entail both employee control and new organisational demands. Also, the strong focus on time in work-family research has downplayed the strain dimension featured in research on work and stress (cf. Karasek and Theorell 1990).

In the article, we explore the extent to which flexible work arrangements can alleviate work-family tensions in the dual-earner society. The study is set in Sweden – with extensive family policies, but persistent gender inequalities – and draws on a recent survey comprising employed mothers and fathers with children aged 3 to 6 (n ≈ 2 250). Using latent class analysis and OLS regressions we study, first, how flexible work arrangements are constructed and how patterns vary by gender, class and gender segregation. Second, we examine how these arrangments affect work-family conflict and the usability of family policies, specifically the right to care for sick children.

Regarding work arrangements, individuals cluster into three job types with different combinations of employee control and workplace demands both regarding time and strain. Jobs with high strain and little schedule flexibility are more common among mothers, low-educated parents and in female-dominated workplaces. ‘Boundaryless’ jobs, combining high demands and high control both in time and strain, are more common among fathers, among high-educated parents and in gender-mixed and male-dominated workplaces. Finally, a smaller cluster of low demands and relatively high employee flexibility/job control is found for both men and women.

Considering the family-friendliness of these job types, we find that both the high strain-low flexibility jobs and the boundaryless jobs entail frictions and negative spillover between work and family. In both cases, parents experience difficulties using the right to care for sick children and high levels of work-family conflict. Thus, a lack of flexibility creates problems, particularly for low-educated mothers, in combining work and family. However, modern jobs with high flexibility and control do not solve these problems. In the final paper, these results will be further refined. The survey analysis will also be supplemented with data from semi-structured interviews with strategically selected survey respondents (n≈40). By focussing on the the interplay between family policies and segregated labour markets, the study can shed new light on gendered dilemmas on the threshold to the dual-earner society.

Popular preferences for the status quo: A comparative study of policy feedback in the income tax system
Arvid Lindh
Stockholms universitet

A growing body of research study how existing political policies might shape the political attitudes and preferences of the public. However, few of these studies focus on feedback dynamics that involves boosting public support for the status quo per se (keeping policies as they are). This is somewhat surprising considering the strong focus on stability and inertia in institutional theory, and that a lot of work in political psychology stress how status quo (or system justification ) “bias” are central to political behavior and legitimacy.

This study adopts a macro/comparative perspective, examining whether public preferences for status quo in the income tax system differ across countries with different institutional designs. Combining latent class and multi-level analysis, public preferences on income taxation are compared across 21 OECD countries, using data from the 2016 Role of Government module of the ISSP. The empirical analysis reveal substantive country differences in the prevalence of status quo preferences. Moreover, while current tax levels do not matter for these attitudes, the status quo is more popular in countries where the tax system is more impartial and efficient (according to expert-based macro indicators). A corresponding relationship, that partly mediates the country-level relationship, is found at the individual level (individuals that perceive tax authorities as impartial and efficient are more likely hold a preference for status quo). In conclusion, this paper thus offer some insights into the underlying mechanisms of policy feedback, suggesting that implemented policy require impartial and efficient public institutions for its legitimacy to be positively reinforced.

Exclusion and Inequality in Late Working Life: Late Work Participation and Risks for Gendered Economic Exclusion in Sweden 1990-2015
Andreas Motel-Klingebiel
Linköpings universitet
Background: Ageing societies need to extend working lives and research must push the boundaries of knowledge about late working life and the potential of its inclusive and equal prolongation. The ability and disposition of ageing people to maintain their labour market activity and/or to retire from work rest on pension systems, activation policies, ageism, changing labour demand and economic shifts. These structural conditions are changing, and most societies may in the long run and on average benefit from theses. But social change does not mature homogeneously and neither do the institutional shifts induced by it. Gains in opportunities and resources do not benefit all people, groups and even societies in the same way. Changes increase insecurities and life course inhomogeneity, create unequally distributed challenges and show asynchrony in shifts and outcomes. They generate new risks for exclusion in work and retirement – some are new, and some refer to existing inequalities by cohort, gender, region, education, class and ethnicity. The Forte-funded EIWO programme takes a European comparative life-course perspective on exclusion and inequality by security of tenure, quality of work, workplaces and their consequences. Grounded in this programme, the presentation addresses late work participation and analyses risks for gendered economic exclusion in Sweden during the period between 1990 and 2015.

Aim and data: The paper deals with late work and retirement patterns and later-life outcomes under changing institutional conditions, focusing on gendered risks for economic exclusion and later life precarity in Sweden. Swedish registry data comprising individual life histories as well as employer, regional and neighbourhood information on the total population 50+ ever living in Sweden 1990-2015 is used in a cohort sequential approach. Analyses focus on gender inequalities and concentrate on occupational activities and retirement transitions under changing social conditions.

Empirical results: Analyses find increasingly heterogeneous pre-retirement and transition patterns, new gender gaps and increasing risks of economic exclusion in retirement that are connected to the postponement of retirement but also to shifts in demographic compositions. The results serve as a basis for the further analyses of EIWO and the presentation outlines a mixed method work programme.

Social protection and redistribution across middle-income countries
Sebastian Sirén
Stockholms universitet

Social security has a long history in the Global South, sometimes even predating the introduction of similar programs in the core nations of the Global North (Schmitt, Lierse, Obinger, & Seelkopf, 2015). Moreover, in the last decades countries across the globe have made substantial progress in expanding social protection systems, including health services, social security and anti-poverty cash transfers (Barrientos, 2013; Hanlon, Barrientos, & Hulme, 2010; Leisering, 2018). However, these expansionary tendencies has taken diverse forms across countries. In combination with the distinct historical trajectories of social security systems across developing nations over the previous century (Schmitt et al., 2015), there is today an important variation across countries regarding the configurations of social policies and related outcomes (Gough et al., 2004).

In contrast to the extensive literature on social policy variation across the core OECD countries (Esping-Andersen, 1990; Huber & Stephens, 2001; Korpi, 1983), the patterns and evolution of social protections across the developing world over the last few decades has been described as a “vastly understudied topic” (Rudra, 2015, p. 464). This paper seeks to address this shortcoming of the current comparative social policy literature. The analyses draw on the recent extension of the LIS database to, in addition to the longstanding OECD countries, also cover an important number of middle-income countries from across the globe. By pooling comparative household survey data the study maps the role of social protection in mitigating poverty and inequality across 18 middle-income countries. More specifically the study explores the contribution of different transfer schemes to household incomes, and analyses the impact of government redistribution on levels of poverty and inequality. By separating between social insurance, life-course benefits and social assistance the analyses also seek to disentangle the role of differently organized schemes of social protection on the outcomes of interests.

The study thus aim to contribute to the literature in at least two ways. Firstly, by providing and empirically based, yet theoretically informed, description of the variation of actually existing social protection system across middle-income countries. Secondly, by providing at least preliminary analyses of the redistributive impacts of these systems, and notably also their different components, across this understudied segment of nations.

Retirement trajectories, social policies and health in Europe.
Ola Sjöberg
Stockholms universitet
The aim of this paper is to analyse how individuals’ labour market experiences and working conditions shape their retirement trajectories, and how these trajectories in turn affect post-retirement health. The paper uses retrospective individual-level data from SHARE (“Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe”), together with institutional data on social policies data from the soc-called SPIN database. The working hypothesis of the paper is that labour market exit for many individuals is an extended process over time, influenced not only by current life circumstances but also by e.g. labour market experiences – such as periods of sickness and unemployment as well as working conditions – during individuals’ whole working life.

While continuous employment with favourable working conditions may act as a powerful “pull” or retention mechanism that allows for greater control over the retirement process, a demanding working environment coupled with unstable labour market careers may push people out of the labour force and favour early exits. The paper will also analyse the extent to which social policies (e.g. unemployment- and sickness benefits) may provide individuals with resources that may increase their control over the retirement process. Finally, the paper will analyse the relationship between retirement trajectories and post-retirement health and well-being, such as depression and quality of life.

Lone mothers’ labour market and re-partnering trajectories – pathways in and out of economic hardship in Sweden and Norway
Caroline Söderlind
Universitetet i Bergen
Lone parenthood is a growing phenomenon and lone parents are increasingly heterogeneous in terms of social background and resources. Durations into and experiences of lone parenthood vary substantially. Increase in union instability across different social groups has fostered greater heterogeneity among lone parents. These changes are accompanied by more dynamic family trajectories with more frequent and faster transitions out of lone parenthood through re-partnering. Changes in union dynamics may reduce the relative disadvantage to which one-parent households are exposed to or the duration of such exposure. However, data show that lone parenthood is still highly correlated to disadvantage in different domains.

Poverty among lone parents has increased markedly in the Nordic countries during the past decade. The percentage of single mothers is about 10 percent in all the Nordic countries. However, the percentage of poor households in this group is considerably higher – around 30 percent in Norway and Sweden. Their average risk of poverty is twice that of the general population, and Nordic countries no longer diverge from non-Nordic countries with regard to lone-parent poverty.

This paper will investigate patterns in labour market and welfare trajectories, and re-partnering trajectories, among young lone mothers in Sweden and Norway, using register data. The study population is 19-34 year olds in three cohorts (observation period 1993 to 2015).

Theoretically, the project will draw on from a life course perspective, and make use of the concept of opportunity structures: the relationship between the welfare state and life course outcomes. While the Scandinavian countries share many characteristics, they differ, however, in several specific policy fields. Housing policies, education policies, labour market policies and family policies are examples of areas where there are crucial differences, which can all be understood as shaping the opportunity structures surrounding young people during the establishment phase. In the context of this study, differences in family policies in Sweden and Norway are of particular interest. While all Nordic countries have policies that support a dual-earner family model, Norway, however, differ in the way that they represent a more dualist family policy. For example, while Sweden has followed a more consistent line of gender relations, Norwegian family policies are more ambiguous by providing incentives for gender equality, and at the same time encouraging childcare in the home. Lone parents have also been treated very differently in Sweden and Norway. For instance, in Sweden, lone parents have to a very little extent been acknowledged as a category on its own in the social insurance system while Norway has a long tradition of offering separate lone parent benefits.

The analytical approach will follow a two-step procedure: The first step is to map typical patterns in labour market and re-partnering trajectories, using sequence analysis, to explore patterns before, during and after entry to lone parenthood, and investigate how following a certain pathway vary according to individual characteristics.

We are interested in investigating differences between the countries with regard to the significance of paid work, welfare benefits, tax system and change of civil status. This may help shed light on the role of the welfare state and the labor market for this group. Thus, the second step will be to identify those who follow more disadvantaged types of pathways and identify those who leave poverty by either (re-) employment and/or re-partnering. This step will thus try to disentangle what factors are the most important for lone mothers leaving economic hardship. Income from paid work, welfare benefits, re-partnering, and/or income of a new partner?

Gender roles and the conservatism of the rich: The gender gap in labor markets and accumulated wealth of parents
Emma von Essen
Stockholms universitet
Occupational and educational choices governed by gender roles are stable in relative terms over generations, implying that the economic status of parents and human and social capital are important bound factors for the life chances of men and women. Parental earnings or education might not capture the full shape of these bound factors.

In this study, we ask how the observed gender gap in labor market outcomes vary with socioeconomic status measured as an accumulated wealth of parents.

Individuals that have parents with similar incomes might have different accumulated wealth, in particular at top and the bottom of the wage distribution. Bequests might perpetuate the social gender roles – women ending up choosing more communal occupations while men choose agentic occupations leading to higher pay.

Sweden is characterizied by high gender occupational segregation. In behavioral economics, the gender gap in occupational choice and the educational choice is partly attributed to preferences of, for example, competitiveness. This gender gap is suggested to be higher among individuals from high socioeconomic backgrounds compared to others. While there is a large literature investigating gender gaps in labor market outcomes across the wage distribution within the same generation, there is still little research investigating how these gender gaps vary across parental income and wealth distributions.

In this study, we use bequests as a measure of socioeconomic background and we examine the patterns of men and women’s labor market position for various strata of the inheritance distribution. We have collected data on the total value and the share of the property of the bequests available on inventory sheets in Stockholm’s Stadsarkiv for a male cohort who died after the age of 50 and were born between 1910 and 1919 in Stockholm municipality. This data is then matched with administrative registers on demographics and labor market information from Swedish Statistics (SCB).

We show that the gender differences in positions in the income distribution vary by socioeconomic background measured by parental bequests. We estimate the association by a difference in difference framework, comparing the gender gap in wage ranks across the distribution of rank of inheritance from the parental generation while holding constant for other factors such educational level and track, age and the share of the property of the bequest. To this end, we rank the cohort generation into 100 equally sized groups based on their inheritance or wage. Similarly, the next generation (the children of the cohort generation) are placed into 100 equally sized groups based on their average income beyond the age of 35. Given that incomes are more dispersed at the top of the distribution, a constant rank gap would be consistent with an increasing income gap between sons and daughters by higher socioeconomic background, and an increasing rank gap would be a sufficient condition for a larger gap in absolute terms for sons and daughters with high socioeconomic status. Our findings support that the gender gap in wages is increasing by socioeconomic status measured by bequests from the parental generation – indicating that the propagation of gender roles is strongest among the rich.

(Im)mobilitet i och följder av låglönearbete utifrån multipla sociala bakgrundsresurser
Max Thaning
Stockholms universitet
Utöver de ofördelaktiga arbetsvillkoren och den samhälleliga status som följer av att befinna sig längst ner i arbetsmarknadshierarkin, tenderar låglönearbete (LLA) i sig att leda till avtagande individuell produktivitet såväl som stigmatisering (Cappellari 2007; McCormick 1990).

Studier av ojämlikhet i LLA utgår vanligtvis ifrån ett intragenerationellt perspektiv, där fokus ligger på om LLA kan beskrivas som stepping stones eller dead-end jobs i arbetsmarknadskarriärer (cf. Bihagen and Ohls 2007; Korpi and Levin 2001). I den här studien anlägger jag istället ett intergenerationellt perspektiv på ojämlikhet i LLA och testar sambandet mellan LLA mobilitet och de fyra centrala familjebakgrundsresurserna: Utbildning, yrke, inkomst och förmögenhet (Hällsten and Thaning 2018b).

Att använda fyra olika mått på ursprungsfamiljeresurser ger en rik bild av social bakgrund. Detta eftersom multipla resurser dels fungerar som indikatorer på de mer eller mindre disparata ojämlikhetsmekanismerna som ligger bakom korrelationerna, men också för att fler resurser fångar upp mer variation i sociala förutsättningar och därmed potentiell ojämlikhet (Hällsten and Thaning 2018a). Exempelvis främjar föräldrars utbildning barnets utbildning i högre grad än andra resurser och likaså är föräldrars inkomst högre korrelerat med barnets inkomst i jämförelse med föräldrars utbildning och yrke – så kallad resursspecificitet (Thaning 2019).

Vidare, även om ojämlikhet i en föräldraresurs (miss)gynnar individer i deras arbetssmarknadsutfall, undersöker jag huruvida en (o)fördelaktig bakgrund utifrån flera resurser kan förstärka ojämlikheten och i så fall med vilken styrka. Svenska registerdata används för kohorterna 1962 till 1972 och LLA transitionerna mäts mellan 1990-2012. Jag använder en competing events-/multinomial logit metod för att modellera fyra ömsesidigt uteslutande utfall: Immobilitet inom LLA, mobilitet till ett högre betalt arbete, till studier eller arbetslöshet. För att fånga eventuella heterogena samband mellan sociala bakgrundsresurser och tid i LLA undersöker jag interaktionen mellan dessa faktorer.

I ett avslutande steg analyseras vad följden av LLA exponering innebär, potentiella s.k. scarring effects, och om det finns heterogena sådana samband över fördelningen i sociala bakgrunds resurser. Sammanfattningsvis är målet med studien att besvara huruvida det: 1) Finns intergenerationell ojämlikhet i LLA; 2) hur omfattande den är; 3) om det finns förstärkande ojämlikhetstendenser, där marginalisering i flera bakgrundsresurser ökar sannolikheten att stanna i LLA, och; 4) huruvida det finns heterogena scarring effects av LLA-erfarenhet utifrån bakgrundsresurser.

19 Sociologisk kriminologi

Kontaktpersoner: Sophia Yakhlef (sophia.yakhlef@soc.lu.se), Lisa Flower (lisa.flower@soc.lu.se)

War Sociology, Criminology and Sociology of Knowledge: Analysis of Bosnian–Herzegovinian Post-genocide Society
Goran Basic
Zlatan Delić
Linnéuniversitetet
The purpose of this article is to analyse institutionalised paralogisms, social and economic inequalities, and frustrating consequences arising from decades of symbolic and real war and post-war violence against the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The historic background of this paper is the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992–1995), as presented in the reports of the United Nations and documents produced during international and national trials concerning war crimes. The analytical basis is a literature review of various studies from the domains of war sociology, criminology, and sociology of knowledge. Immanent antinomies, contradictions, and political, legal, and criminal perpetually institutionalise and reproduce the identitary references to war vocabulary. For this reason, creation of publicly responsible programs is necessary to evaluate the prescriptive impact of the domination of cultural and identity differences between peoples in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The genocide of Bosnian Bosniaks in the war against the Bosnian–Herzegovinian multicultural society urges the creation of a completely different description, prescription, logic of naming, and explanation strategy to achieve transitional change. The article criticized globalisation as a form of new colonisation and natural-science quantative emphasis. In the spirit of the analysed scientific literature, future scientific analyses should focus on the criminal, social, economic, ecological, anti-educational, sociopathological, and anomic consequences of the (catastrophic) impact of decades of symbolic and real war and post-war violence against the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Key words: cultural production of differences, logic of naming differences, pedagogy of work, enquiry-based learning, cooperative learning, democratic self-government, lifelong learning, pedagogy of emancipation

“Where There is Salafi-Jihadism, There is Always Also Honor-Related Social Control”: Outlining the Intimate Terrorism and Terrorism Nexus
Henriette Esholdt
Lunds universitet

Michael Johnson (2008) has conceptualized “intimate terrorism” to describe the phenomenon of violence in close relationships when one partner in a relationship uses power and control to violently abuse another person sexually, economically, physically, emotionally and psychologically. In line with this definition, this paper see honor-related social control as a form of “intimate terrorism,” because it is essentially about using power and control in regulating and controlling behavior that threatens norms about gender and sexuality.

Furthermore, previous research shows that different forms of emotional, sexual and even physical violence are key elements in honor-related social control. Based on interviews with 1) relatives of, or persons in the social milieu around, people who are or have been involved in Salafi-jihadist environments and 2) “professionals” (e.g. police, social workers) working with people involved in these environments, as well as observations in vulnerable areas in Sweden characterized by the Swedish Police Authority as areas characterized by (among other things) Islamist extremism, this paper outlines the intimate terrorism and terrorism nexus. In the study described, honor-related social control emerged as a recurring theme related to both men and women in Salafi-Jihadist environments.

For example, gatekeepers explained how wives of so-called (returned) foreign fighters could not be accessed for interviews because they were living under the social control of their husbands and could not leave their homes. There were examples of Muslim women in the vulnerable areas who were not allowed to access public space—not even when wearing a burka. Some said that, to act as a “good” Muslim woman, you should not even go to the local mosque, but rather stay at home. There were also examples of foreign fighters, their family members or other persons in their close relationships living in accordance with a strict honor-related cultural code governing how one should live one’s life, which included a prohibition on young people attending Swedish public schools, having contact with Swedes or persons of the opposite sex etc. The presence of honor-related social control does of course not mean that violence-promoting Islamist extremism is also present or will ever occur. However, this paper argues that honor-related social control seems to be a relevant component to consider in relation to Salafi-Jihadism.

An exploration of the clash of expectations between legal professionals and lay participants of a criminal trial
Lisa Flower
Lunds universitet
The clash of expectations between legal professionals and non-legal actors will be explored in this paper by focusing on criminal trials. Legal professionals are expected to follow invisible rules which may be unknown to lay participants thus leading to a juxtaposition between the normative performances that the legal sphere expects of its professionals and the expectations they face by the general public. This clash becomes particularly relevant when criminal trials are reported. This paper will therefore explore this discord by drawing on interviews with legal professionals as well as by examining transcripts from criminal trials that have been live-reported and commented on by online readers.

Where Sociology of Crime and Deviance meets Critical Criminology: Benefits of cross-disciplinary theorising for deeper understandings of Masculine Dominance and Control in Violence Crimes’
Jamilla Rosdahl
Karlstads Universitet

This paper begins by exploring sociology’s development within the areas of deviant behaviour, criminality and violence crimes relating to masculine dominance and coercive control techniques. Next it explores the role of sociology for deepening critical criminological studies on violence crimes. The paper argues for how critical criminology can benefit from a cross-disciplinary approach to theorising on violence crimes which involve masculine dominance and control. Finally, further questions and arguments are developed surrounding the relevance of notions of gender, normative violence, and violence norms in combination with recent empirical findings in discussions on possible global futures of sociological studies on violence research.

Quantifying Fear
Hanna Sahlin Lilja
Lund universitet
The fear of crime research is a historically relatively new phenomenon. Since it was initiated in an American political context during the 60’s, it has spread across national and institutional boundaries. The proliferation of research has been impressive, as has the growth of its contextual scope. One way to think about the research discourse is as an effort to count something that was not previously counted. The fear of crime research discourse is an endeavor to quantify fear. It attempts to describe crime fear in numbers, to measure the amount of fear in a population. It produces something; “facts” about fear of crime in the form of numbers. It makes statements such as “30% of the population of Malmö are fearful of crime” not only possible, but scientific. This paper aims to assess how such a production of scientific facts is made possible; what is needed to produce quantified measurements of fear of crime? In this research question there is an inherent theoretical interest in the process of quantification itself. One way to examine the processes involved in the process of quantification, in producing quantified measurements of something, is by asking what is needed to produce such facts:

• What is being quantified, and by what means?
• What institutions are involved in creating scientific numbers?
• What instruments do the institutions use to generate these numbers?
• What entities and phenomena are commensurated to make up fear of crime statistics?
• What categorizations and classifications are involved in the process?
• What kind of reactivity does the knowledge production of fear of crime produce?

To address these research questions, the following data is used in the paper:
• Documents: reports and technical reports from Swedish fear of crime surveys.
• E-mail and phone conversations with Swedish municipalities and the Swedish Bureau of Statistics, the Public Health Agency of Sweden, the Crime Prevention Council, the Swedish Contingencies Agency, the Swedish Agency for Youth and Civil Society and the Police during the period 2016-2019.

Inscribing the self in criminal news
David Wästerfors
Lunds universitet

People seem to quite often make use of the internet when relating to criminal events today, as a sort of digital equivalent to a crowd gathered in the street to watch and lament over a crime scene. Many Internet arenas allow people to quickly articulate their anger and indignation — and sympathy for the victims — and to try out their skills as private investigators. Much of today’s civil control work seems to be propelled by sophisticated teamwork on the Internet.

This presentation aims at (a) describing a range of activities being accomplished daily on arenas as Flashback and Facebook regarding criminal events under public discussion, and (b) exploring — more specifically — the practice of ‘inscribing oneself’ into the crimes by the help of these activities. Embedded into recurring rhetorical devices in the threads and posts (like speculating, lamenting, listing facts, summing up, asking questions, doing irony and racism, etc.) there seem to be an attractive possibility to put one’s self “in” the crime, by relating to one’s personal background, or to one’s personal knowledge, skills, address, observations and networks, etc. “I have also worked at a café like that …”, “My parents live in this house …”, “I grew up in this area …”, “I know people at the emergency hospital and now they say …”.

This is done in a very detailed fashion and it is taking place interactively, so that others rapidly respond to one’s self presentation, and either question it or attribute it recognition. There are epistemological claims being done, based on the commentator’s alleged insights and connections to the crimes at issue, that can be honored or not within the Internet arenas, and sometimes start off a brilliant career as a locally trustworthy commentator. Mainstream media does not offer the same possibility, at least not exactly (and not in anonymous structures).

The hypothesis is that today’s highly accessible and interactive ways to discuss crimes provide excellent (although a bit unpredictable) opportunities to inscribe one’s self in criminal events. This is discussed in relation to — among other texts — Stephen Lyng’s article on “edgework” from 1990 and Jack Katz’ article “What makes crime ‘news’?” from 1987. Citizens’ appetite for crime news in society appear to be fuelled or sustained (despite all repetition in the daily reports) via a sort of social-psychological risk taking. The data are taken from the project Citizens as Crime Investigators — Digital crowdsourcing in civil policing and intelligence work, in which Internet data are combined with interviews with lurkers and active commentators, conducted together with Veronika Burcar Alm and Erik Hannerz.

Adapting to Change after the “European Migration Crisis”: Crimmigration in the Oresund Region?
Sophia Yakhlef
Lunds universitet
During the last few years, law enforcement organizations world-wide have been facing various organizational and structural changes resulting from increased threats of terrorism, irregular migration, and cross border crimes. These changes have been paramount in Europe, especially since the EU enlargement and the implementation of the Schengen in 1995. Since 2015, European nation states have experienced a large increase in migrants and refugees: an event that entailed various political responses. Territorial borders were closed, triggering debates regarding risks related to public safety and crime resulting from the lack of controlled immigration. These changes have intensified the needs for extensive collaboration across national borders, placing high demands on border police officers to coordinate joint activities and share secret and sensitive information.

In this paper, I attempt to further develop an on-going research project focusing on border police collaboration in the Baltic Sea area. The study so far describes how border police and police officers fighting cross-border crimes were initially at pains to resolve difficulties related to distrust, organizational, bureaucratic, and cultural differences and how subsequently, a sense of community, of a collaborative spirit has emerged among them. It through their engagement in the joint venture, the everyday practice of fighting crimes that issues of cultural differences were ironed out.

In November 2019, the Danish government instated border controls on the border with Sweden because of recent gang violence and bomb explosions. The border checks are part of a security plan and unprotected borders against Sweden is thus seen as a potential risk. In this particular study, I investigate the implications of the European migration crisis in the Oresund region, focusing on how collaboration and cross-border relations have been affected and changed due to recent events. Furthermore, I discuss the rise of crimmigration, that is, the intersection of crime and migration in Scandinavia, and particularly, in the Oresund region, arguing that this trend poses new challenges for border police collaboration in the area.

20 Urbansociologi

Kontaktperson: Susanne Urban (susanne.urban@ibf.uu.se)

Värdet av det urbana: abstrakta och differentierade rum i stadsutvecklingspraktiker
Christoffer Berg
Uppsala universitet
Min presentation avser belysa analytiska vinklar för att undersöka motsättningar i stadsutvecklingspraktiker. Med utgångspunkt i min forskning om Sundbybergs historiska och samtida utveckling som stad i Stockholmsregionen, avser jag mer specifikt ge exempel på hur kommunala planeringsstrategier, och dess representationer av det urbana rummet, är granskade och konfronterade av ett aktivistnätverk. Premissen är ett specifikt stadsutvecklingsprojekt – ’Sundbybergs nya stadskärna’ – som, i sin tur, är en följd av en utvidgning och nedgrävning av Mälarbanan inom Sundbybergs territorium.

Mot bakgrund av projektets officiella praktiker och utmynnande plandokument, initieras ett motstånd bland Sundbybergs lokalinvånare som är intressanta både utifrån dess anspråk på alternativa rationaliteter i stadsutveckling, och de aktioner som är satta i verket. Genom att tillämpa Henri Lefebvres åtskillnad mellan rummet som abstrakt och differentierad företeelse, vill jag i min presentation visa hur denna ’dualism’ är behjälplig för att undersöka dynamiska och motsägelsefulla aspekter i urban stadsutveckling. Utifrån det grundläggande antagandet om det abstrakta rummets dominans i att extrahera bytesvärden i urbana rum och applicera det för ekonomisk tillväxt, ska det differentierade rummet förstås som en potentiell motreaktion baserad i rummets brukarvärden. Därför, med projektet ’Sundbybergs nya stadskärna’ som ett fall, kommer jag i min presentation visa hur, och i vilken utsträckning, aktivistsnätverkets praktiker kan förstås som skapandet av ett differentierat rum, och projektet som sådant förstås som en arena för konflikt.

Commodification of Public Space: The Case of Kwun Tong Promenade, Hong Kong
Elton Chan
Lunds universitet
According to Lefebvre, modern capitalism has led to the commodification of urban life. Like any product in a capitalist society, the built environment is a commodity that must be endowed with exchange value. Whilst the inter-urban competition continues to intensify under neoliberal capitalism, governments and their private partners have become ever more fixated on finding ways to attract investment and generate speculation in different urban development projects. This paper contends that public space is no exception and its production is increasingly characterised by the domination of exchange value over use value. While public spaces are not profitable assets that can be easily valorised in the real estate market, they tend to be produced with the aim to achieve various financial, political and developmental goals. In other words, the production of public space is increasingly exploited by both the government and private developers as a means of exchange rather than an end to provide a democratic space for public use. As a result, the value and success of such public spaces are no longer defined by their accessibility, inclusivity and publicness, but instead, they are largely dependent on what the various stakeholders can gain in return.

This paper argues that the Kwun Tong Promenade in Hong Kong is an exemplary case of government-driven commodification of public space. First opened to the public in 2010, the waterfront promenade is considered by the government to be an integral part of its plan to redevelop a former industrial area into a new central business district. However, despite winning a number of design awards, the Kwun Tong Promenade is mostly underused and unpopular among local residents. Through document analysis, site observations and interviews with different stakeholders, this paper seeks to shed light on the social production of Kwun Tong Promenade by examining its design and planning process, the government’s motivations behind the redevelopment of Kwun Tong and how the commodification of public space is manifested both socially and spatially. It is clear from the findings that the Kwun Tong promenade is developed with the aim of attracting investment and driving growth in the area, and the voices and needs of the local community are repeatedly neglected in the process. While the Kwun Tong Promenade may not have been the trigger for all the socio-spatial transformations taking place in the aging and poverty-stricken area, the findings suggest that the beautification of the waterfront has not only led to the acceleration of state-led gentrification in Kwun Tong, but also exacerbated spatial inequality through the unequal distribution of resources.

#UrbanGilrsMovement; implementing policies and targets of equality and sustainable urban development on the local level
Sara Ferlander
Tanya Jukkala
Södertörns högskola
As our cities are growing so are the inequalities between their inhabitants and different areas of the cities. Individuals, groups of individuals and whole neighbourhoods are being marginalised in terms of access to resources, opportunities, health and wellbeing as well as in terms of democratic influence. Targeting such inequalities – creating “cities for all” and “leaving no one behind” – have become top priorities in urban planning and are a prerequisite for sustainable urban development.

This paper discusses the results from a one year urban development initiative #UrbanGirlsMovement with the objective of implementing policies and targets of equality and sustainable urban development on the local level. #UrbanGirlsMovement is a hub for girls and young women in Fittja in Stockholm, Sweden, to engage in urban development processes in their neighbourhood as “place-experts” together with professionals. The girls worked to improve public space design in their neighbourhood by using the computer game Minecraft. The results of this initiative are discussed from the perspectives of feminist urban theory, feminist standpoint theory and intersectional theory.

It is argued that the girls participating in #UrbanGirlsMovement demonstrate local knowledge and insights from their experience of marginalisation and stigmatisation that can be used as a constructive force for improvement of the neighbourhood. Moreover, the recognition of the girls’ knowledge and experiences within the frames of #UrbanGirlsMovement is empowering in encouraging the girls’ self-definition as well as a critical understanding of societal power relations and more effective resistance of them. In addition, the initiative of #UrbanGirlsMovement shows the ability of the girls to not only consider improvements that would benefit them as a group, but rather such that would allow a sustainable development of the whole neighbourhood and for its’ variety of inhabitants.

Negotiating Local Belonging and Urban Decline: Nostalgia, Preservation Strategies and Renewal in a Mining Community
Viktor Hedermo
Örebro universitet
Drawing on interviews with residents of Malmberget, a small mining town in Northern Sweden, this paper addresses how notions of belonging are negotiated in industrial communities undergoing disruptive, yet continuous, spatial and social change. Due to an expanding mining area, the town is being gradually demolished and remaining inhabitants may eventually have to be relocated. Concurrently, urban expansion plans are underway to accommodate the relocation of Malmberget residents to the neighbouring town of Gällivare.

The analysis suggests that many interviewees construct a strong sense of collective local belonging and identity rooted in social and kinship ties and community history. Such claims to belonging are established through constructing boundaries against Gällivare and others considered outsiders. Moreover, participants also negotiate a sense of belonging through memories and nostalgia. To this end, some participants enact preservation strategies to cope with the ongoing decline of the town and to maintain a sense of shared sense of belonging and social identity. Yet, living under urban decline with an uncertain future contributes to a sense of ontological insecurity and hence a displacement of belonging. Finally, generational differences regarding residents’ sense of belonging are identified. Younger interviewees express a weaker sense of local belonging and nostalgia, and more optimism about the expansion plans in Gällivare.

21 Utbildningssociologi

Kontaktperson: Mikael Börjesson (mikael.borjesson@edu.uu.se)

Institutional stratification: Layers of functions and the shaping of the Swedish university system
Ola Agevall
Linnéuniversitetet

The contemporary Swedish university system is an exceedingly complex creature, home to a vast and diverse set of academics, distributed over different teacher categories, performing different tasks at different types of higher education institutions. Each academic is intimately familiar with his immediate surroundings, none with the entire expanse of the system. Studies of the university system can then either chart what the world looks like from the point of view of specific locales in the system, or chart it macroscopically to discover the underlying patterns that structure it socially. In this paper, we aim to supplement and bridge these two modes of inquiry with a third diachronic one. We argue that the contemporary Swedish university results from a historical process, viz. the successive superimposition of new tasks and layers of functions, which have spawned a matrix of teacher categories, types of HE units, types of educational programs, and types of students. By tracing the history and development of these divisions, we can discern the fault lines along which the system is stratified, and how conditions vary between its different locales.

Interactionist Analysis of Professional Identities in Pre-school Context Carina Nilsson
Anette Svensson
Goran Basic
Linnéuniversitetet
The aim of this study was to develop new knowledge concerning creation and re-creation of pre-school teachers’ professional identity during the practical work with language development in multilingual children. The analysis was based on empirical sequences from previously published qualitative analyses with the assistance of an interactionist perspective and earlier research revolving around the phenomenon of ‘social interaction and learning’. Three themes are presented: language development during play, language development during mealtime, and language development during story reading. Pre-school teachers emphasised the significance of everyday practical interactions for language development and presented themselves as competent parties who build upon their knowledge via interaction with multilingual children. Thus, the interaction with multilingual children becomes a fundamental dimension of the pre-school teachers’ professional identity. The interactive dimension is important to the successful involvement and integration of multilingual children in the school context and recognition of the identity of pre-school teachers who engage in practical work among these children.

Keywords
Education, pedagogy, teaching, pedagogical work, language learning, language development approach, reanalysis, qualitative data, secondary empirical material, Sweden

Framtidsutsikter, val och resurser hos unga vuxna i svensk periferi
Anna Bennich-Björkman
Uppsala universitet

Studien som presenteras är ett pågående doktorandprojekt som undersöker uppväxtvillkor och framtidsutsikter i svensk periferi. Fokus för studien är unga vuxna i mindre städer som tidigare har dominerats av tung industri. Platserna har växt fram och byggts upp kring industri och arbetarklassyrken och –identitet. Den unga generation som undersöks (födda omkring millennieskiftet) har växt upp i en brytningspunkt där dessa industrier inte längre finns kvar på orten trots att dessa var anledningen till platsens framväxt. Djupintervjuer har gjorts med unga vuxna i slutet av gymnasiet, samt deras föräldrar. Resultat utifrån ett fyrtiotal intervjuer i Söderhamn (Hälsingland) kommer att presenteras.

Genom att studera framtidsutsikter och resurser söks svar på hur en plats med en viss struktur och historia formar vad som upplevs som möjligt och eftersträvansvärt för en generation som är ung i dag. Vidare menar studien att dessa typer av platser kan ses som perifera i förhållande till ett urbant centrum. När det oberoende som industrin gav dessa platser försvann uppstod ett tydligare regionalt, ekonomiskt beroende av staten vilket har inneburit att dessa platser också har blivit tvungna att förhålla sig till det symboliska värdesystem som vuxit fram i ett urbant centrum.

I och med industrins reträtt har arbetsmarknaden ändrat skepnad och den sociala stabilitet som rådde under stora delar av 1900-talet är inte längre en självklarhet. Unga på dessa orter behöver förhålla sig till andra strukturer än vad deras föräldrar gjorde. När industrin inte längre erbjuder arbetstillfällen blir geografisk mobilitet vanligare och ofta nödvändig för högre studier. Detta reflekteras också i den demografiska utvecklingen i orter som Söderhamn: unga personer flyttar och kommunen får allt svårare att hantera den åldrande befolkningen.

Preliminära resultat från Söderhamn visar på en rad faktorer som påverkar ungas framtidsutsikter och de val som görs efter gymnasiet. Trots att de flesta familjer har bott i Söderhamn i generationer tillbaka finns det en tydlig vilja till mobilitet, ofta i förhållande till universitetsstudier, men i vissa fall också i form av en flykt från platsen. Viljan att flytta kopplas ofta till urbana värden, att bo på en plats med mer affärer och människor, där saker händer och den sociala kontrollen är svagare. Högre utbildning är högt värderad trots att många föräldrar saknar densamma. Utbildning ses som ett värde enbart i förhållande till arbetsmarknaden; detta är en generation som upplever en instabilitet i förhållande till sin position på arbetsmarknaden. Högre utbildning blir ett sätt att rusta sig och trygga en position på en arbetsmarknad som är oförutsägbar. De som är mest positiva till uppväxtorten är ofta de som är mest säkra på att de kommer att flytta; det är de välanpassade och resursstarka ungdomarna som kan tänka sig att bo kvar men som inte ser någon framtid i Söderhamn eftersom det saknas en högskola och en lockande arbetsmarknad.

Den svenska floran av lärosäten
Mikael Börjesson
Johan Boberg
Uppsala universitet
Allt mer fokus inom den högre utbildningens policysfär har kommit att hamna på lärosätena som sådana. De betraktas i dag som de mest centrala aktörerna inom den högre utbildningen och forskningen, vilket en rad olika utredningar vittnar om (se exempelvis Självständiga lärosäten, SOU 2008:104, En långsiktig, samordnad och dialogbaserad styrning av högskolan SOU 2019:6, Ökad attraktionskraft för kunskapsnationen Sverige SOU 2018:78). De senaste årens reformer har inneburit att en del av styrningen av den svenska högre utbildningen decentraliserats till lärosätena, som numera själva beslutar över sin interna organisation. Mer resurser har allokerats till lärosätena och såväl utbildning och forskning har expanderat. Lärosätena har dessutom fått utökade befogenheter att internt fördela dessa resurser. Sammantaget har såväl betydelsen som handlingsutrymmet för svenska lärosäten ökat.

Samtidigt är det slående att lärosäten ofta betraktas som en enhetlig kategori, som autonoma rationella organisationer. Sällan synliggörs de avsevärda skillnader som högskolelandskapet rymmer. Lärosätena skiljer sig åt vad gäller storlek, historia, geografisk placering, ekonomiska förutsättningar, forskningsresurser, utbildningsutbud, med mera. De organiserar sig även på skilda sätt. I denna studie försöker vi bena ut hur den svenska floran av lärosäten ser ut, dels utifrån deras karaktäristik som enheter (storlek, ekonomi, resurser, med mera), dels utifrån deras interna organisering. Med det senare avser vi såväl lärosätenas lednings- och nämndstruktur som deras organisatoriska uppdelningar i vetenskapsområden, fakulteter, akademier, institutioner, avdelningar, centrum, institut, och så vidare. Detta ger oss möjlighet att förstå vad det är som befolkar det svenska högskolelandskapet och hur de enskilda lärosätenas organisering förhåller sig till den position som lärosätet intar i relation till övriga lärosäten. Vi analyserar även skillnader över tid och ställer dagens förhållanden mot situationen strax före autonomireformen 2011. Resultaten visar att skillnaderna såväl mellan som inom lärosäten ökat.

Är deltagandet i Erasmus+ socialt selektivt? En populationsstudie av svenska Erasmusstudenter och övriga högskolestudenter 2014-2015
André Bryntesson
Uppsala universitet

Internationell studentmobilitet har historiskt sett varit förbehållet privilegierade sociala grupper. Än idag karaktäriseras det i forskningen som ett socialt selektivt fenomen. Studien tar avstamp i detta och undersöker den sociala bakgrunden hos de svenska studenter som reser ut med utbytesprogrammet Erasmus+, och jämför den med med övriga svenska högskolestudenters bakgrund. De svenska Erasmusstudenterna erhåller dels svenskt studiemedel, men därutöver tillkommer programstipendiet kopplat till Erasmus+, som under den den undersökta perioden 2014-2015 låg på omkring 3 000 kronor i månaden. Dessutom ska utbytesstudier inom programmet inte behöva leda till förlängd studietid eftersom poängen ska kunna tillgodoräknas i studenternas examen. Allt detta borgar för en i internationell jämförelse låg grad av social selektivitet, då de ekonomiska hindren är små. Samtidigt är en tanke bakom programmet just att erbjuda mobilitetsmöjligheter även för grupper som annars är underrepresenterade.

Resultaten av en analys av hela populationen svenska studenter, deltagare respektive icke-deltagare i Erasmus, visar trots det att studenter från familjer med mer resurser är tydligt överrepresenterade bland de som deltar. En logistisk regressionsanalys visar vidare att programmet framför allt rekryterar studenter med högre gymnasiebetyg och inom vissa typer av utbildningar. Den sociala selektiviteten i programdeltagandet beror dock i mycket hög grad på att studenter från familjer med högre utbildning och inkomst har högre betyg och väljer utbildningar där deltagande i Erasmus är särskilt vanligt.

När betyg och studieval hålls konstanta återstår en mycket svag positiv effekt av högre social bakgrund på sannolikheten att delta i Erasmus+. Med andra ord kan rekrytering sägas vara tämligen meritokratisk, och meritokratisk rekrytering tenderar att gynna högre sociala grupper eftersom dessa har bättre meritet. Resultaten har betydelse för synen på Erasmusprogrammet i relation till dess målsättningar, och indikerar att en socialt jämlik rekrytering troligtvis förutsätter mer aktiva åtgärder än bara ett undanröjande av potentiella hinder för deltagande.

Skillnader i social rekrytering till statsvetenskapliga program vid olika lärosäten samt studenters ansökningsstrategier
Astrid Collsiöö
Uppsala universitet
Det finns ett antal utbildningar som ofta återkommer när personer med maktpositioner i samhället återger sin utbildningsbakgrund; statsvetenskap är en sådan utbildning. Några statsvetenskapliga studenter kommer att hamna på positioner som ger dem betydande makt och inflytande i samhället medan andra aldrig når dit, eller ens strävar mot ett sådant mål. Syftet med mitt pågående avhandlingsprojekt är bidra med kunskap om vilka de statsvetenskapliga studenterna är, deras väg till och genom utbildningen samt att försöka förstå utbildningens betydelse för att förklara vilka som når maktpositioner och inte i en tid präglad av utbildningsexpansion.

Ett flertal studier om social skiktning i utbildningssystemet har fokuserat på skillnader mellan olika studieprogram och visat att t.ex. läkarprogrammet och juristprogrammet skiljer sig åt från flera andra program beträffande studenternas sociala bakgrund. Få studier har däremot fokuserat på social skiktning inom ett program genom att undersöka hur rekryteringen skiljer sig åt vid olika lärosäten.

En teoretisk utgångspunkt i den här avhandlingen är att utbildningsexpansionen lett till att utbildningstitlar, så som till exempel en statsvetenskaplig examen, har minskat i värde. I och med att fler och fler läser en akademisk utbildning blir det viktigare än tidigare att inte bara tillskansa sig en examen, utan också att ha rätt examen.

En statsvetenskaplig examen från ett äldre och prestigefullt universitet skulle sannolikt ha en längre räckvidd jämfört med en examen från en mindre och nyare högskola; dels på grund av den inneboende statusmarkör som medföljer vissa lärosätens stämpel på examensbeviset men inte andra, dels för att det vid de äldre universiteten i högre grad finns tillgång till föreningsliv, aktiviteter och nätverksbyggande som har genomslagskraft i den politiska maktens fält, och som kan tänkas ha vuxit i betydelse när utbudet av utbildade ökar utan en motsvarande efterfrågan.

En av de första undersökningarna till denna avhandling har därför varit att kartlägga den sociala rekryteringen till olika statsvetenskapliga program för att undersöka om det finns en social skiktning inom statsvetenskapliga program. Med hjälp av registerdata från 1993-2017 undersöks det hur statsvetenskapliga program skiljer sig åt mellan olika lärosäten samt vad de statsvetenskapliga studenterna valt emellan när de ansökt till statsvetenskapliga program, och om det fanns skillnader i ansökningsstrategier beroende på kön, ålder, social bakgrund samt vilket lärosäte de läser vid idag.

Distributionen av professionsorientering bland högstadielärare på den svenska skolmarknaden
Per Dannefjord
Magnus Persson
Linneuniversitetet
Genom ett antal neoliberalt influerade reformer har det svenska skolsystemet, sedan 1990-talet, utvecklats till en skolmarknad som genomsyras av ökad valfrihet, konkurrens mellan skolor och eroderad kollegialitet bland lärare. Under samma period har flera problem med den svenska skolan uppmärksammats. Betygsinflation, dåliga resultat i internationella mätningar, lärarbrist, sjunkande status på både lärare och lärarutbildning, bristande likvärdighet och inte minst stora skillnader i skolornas förutsättningar att bedriva skolverksamhet enligt läroplanen, är återkommande problemområden i skolans vardagliga arbete.

Den enskilda elevens möjlighet att själv välja skola har bidragit till utvecklingen av en skolhierarki där ”bra” skolor har högt söktryck, gott rykte och konkurrenskraftiga resultat medan ”dåliga” skolor har ett allt sämre rykte med lägre söktryck och svaga resultat. Elever med starka sociala och utbildningsrelaterade resurser lyckas med hjälp av välinformerade föräldrar i högre grad navigera sig till skolor som erbjuder förutsättningar som säkerställer tillräckliga skolresultat för att kunna manövrera sig vidare till värdefulla utbildningspositioner högre upp i utbildningssystemet. Elever med svagare resurser hänvisas till skolor som saknar denna typ av förutsättningar. Systemet reproducerar redan existerande ojämlikheter i skolan och i samhället. Där skillnaderna mellan bra och dåliga skolor är stor, blir förutsättningarna att utföra lärararbetet utifrån läroplan och andra reglerande dokument mycket olika. Sådana skillnader existerar både på nationell och lokal nivå.

Denna presentation fokuserar på hur högstadielärare på olika skolor och på olika skolmarknader hanterar det professionella arbetet som lärare samt hur dessa olika professionella förhållningssätt (professionsorientering) finns distribuerade på två olika svenska lokala skolmarknader (Malmö och Växjö).

Datamaterialet består av semistrukturerade intervjuer med högstadielärare verksamma på dessa platser. Detta material kompletteras med registerdata som beskriver främst de enskilda skolornas elevstruktur med avsikt att synliggöra skolmarknadens variationsvidd. Malmö kan beskrivas som en utsträckt skolmarknad med stora skillnader mellan skolorna medan Växjö istället har en mer sammanpressad marknad där skolorna, i statistisk mening, inte har påtagliga skillnader mellan skolorna.

Utifrån intervjuerna har två olika analytiska dimensioner mejslats fram och bidragit till att utveckla fyra olika professionsorienterade idealtyper. Den första dimensionen skiljer mellan lärare som accepterar och de som inte accepterar det skolsystem de bedriver sitt professionella arbete inom medan den andra dimensionen skiljer mellan de vars professionella arbete huvudsakligen utgår ifrån att fostra eleverna till trygga och fungerande samhällsmedborgare och de vars professionella arbete utgår ifrån att lära eleverna traditionell ämneskunskap enligt ämnes- och läroplan. Med hjälp av en fyrfältsmodell har följande professionsorienterade idealtyper utvecklats:

Accepterar skolsystemet och fokuserar på elevernas lärande
Accepterar inte skolsystemet och fokuserar på elevernas fostran
Accepterar systemet och fokuserar på elevernas fostran
Accepterar inte systemet och fokuserar på elevernas lärande
Några idealtyper förefaller dominera vissa delar av skolmarknaden men vara närmast frånvarande i andra delar. Det finns också betydelsefulla skillnader mellan den utsträckta Malmö-marknaden och den sammanpressade Växjö-marknaden i hur lärarna uttrycker sin professionella orientering. I presentationen kommer vi att visa, med hjälp av empiriska exempel, hur de olika typerna distribuerats på respektive lokal skolmarknad samt föreslå förklaringar på varför distributionen gestaltar sig som den gör.

Parenting strategies around children’s education in urban China – intensive, responsible and stratifying
Lisa Eklund
Lunds universitet
Chinese families invest an unprecedented amount of time and resources in fostering their children’s cognitive and academic skills in an increasingly competitive environment where schools and the labour market are highly stratified. At the same time, the Chinese government is advocating for a “happy childhood” and have implemented several policies and regulations to try and temper this “education fever”. This paper investigates the empirical realities of shifting norms and practices around children’s education in urban China. In particular, it examines how parenting strategies are entangled with aspirations for human capital accumulation and upward social mobility, as well as the best interest of the child, and how these notions are reconciled and enacted differently along gender, generation, and class lines. The paper is based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Beijing 2019, with interviews with mothers and fathers, as well as children and grandparents with different class backgrounds. Three districts in Beijing were selected (one upper middle-class/academic, one upper middle class/commercial, and one lower middle class/working class district). Participant observations were also been made in one primary school and extra-curricular school settings.

Working with the concepts of intensive motherhood (Hays 1996) and intensive parenting (Faircloth 2014), responsible parenting and concerted cultivation (Lareau 2011) the paper serves to illuminate ways in which parenting cultures both reflect and reproduce inequalities not only with regards to gender and class, but also with regards to intergenerational relations. The paper outlines ways in which parents’ strategies around their children’s cognitive and academic development are motivated, negotiated and prioritised and how parents navigate through compromises, sacrifices and contestations to realise these strategies. By enrolling their children in extra-curricular classes, language courses abroad, summer camps, travelling in China and abroad, parents build their children’s CVs to get into the best possible school, and nurturing cultural capital and “interests” are key. There is also a strong narrative about the need for children to find their own way, know what they want, be creative etc. Yet, most parents’ fill their children’s day with learning activities and there is little time for play and rest. Moreover, children’s education is mostly mothers’ responsibilities. Fathers have more relaxed attitudes, and thereby transfer responsibilities to the mother. Having a grandparent or nanny at home enables women to continue their careers, but many women are full-time “house-mothers” to ensure proper tutoring, discipline and nutrition. Grandparents are mostly designated to ”grandnannying” (cooking, shopping, bringing child to/from school) (Eklund & Göransson 2016) either because they are seen as spoilers of stamina and diligence or because they lack knowledge and skills for sufficient tutoring. Class matters in terms of access to information and formal/informal courses, ability to afford private tutors, to move closer to elite schools, and ability to stay in community like residential areas where social capital can be built. The analysis further suggests that among some upper middle-class families, the notion of the best interest of the child, which is associated with ideas about “becoming oneself” is competing with the quest for human capital accumulation “becoming somebody”. The former gives a different meaning to responsible parenting, but at the same adds to intensive motherhood by balancing demands on children’s mental and emotional wellbeing and demands on cultivating and nurturing their skills and knowledge.

Vocational students and the academic/ vocational divide
Lisa Ferm
Linköpings universitet
The vocational/academic divide, implicating a disparity of esteem between vocational education and general education, constitutes a significant challenge in many countries. Historical discourses of vocational education as less prestigious than academic education contributes to a lower esteem of vocational education in the dominant perception of status. However, this presentation contributes to research on vocational education that has challenged dominant conceptions of vocational/academic divide, demonstrating how the respect and value of vocational education vary among vocational students who are in the midst of developing their vocational identities.

The presentation is based on a dissertation focusing on the identity formation of Swedish vocational students in the industrial program. These students are required to navigate between the context of school and the context of work as they form their identity as industrial workers. As the students are affected by both the logic of school and the logic of work they are also subjected to, what in educational research is referred to as the academic/vocational divide. This divide refers to the separation of theoretical and practical knowledge and the hierarchy in which theoretical knowledge is seen as paramount to practical knowledge. Even if theoretical and practical knowledge generally are integrated and dependent of one another, the divide still affects the status and presumed intelligence ascribed to people based on the type of education they are enrolled in or the kind of work they do.

The tensions and boundaries between school and work have been richly studied but the way that the students relate to the division of knowledge has, to the best of my knowledge, not been examined yet.
This will be the focus of this paper which builds on a study that aims to investigate how the academic/vocational divide relate to vocational students’ subjective experiences of forming a vocational identity. The empirical material of the study consists of qualitative semi- structured interviews with 44 vocational students enrolled in the industrial program in Swedish upper secondary school. The interviews focused on the students’ experiences of their education, with focus on their work-place based learning. They were asked about their view of both theoretic and practical knowledge and their ways of learning and identifying with their prospective vocation.

The findings reveal how the vocational students relate to the academic/ vocational divide in different ways. To understand their experiences in relation to the divide, the concept of recontextualization is used as an analytical tool. Recontextualizion implies that knowledge is not simply transfered between different contexts, but also transformed and used in different ways as it is moved between for example school and work. The students recontextualized the divide by turning it upside down as they placed higher status and value on practical than theoretical knowledge. They also separated school from work almost completely; they saw viewed work as connected to practical knowledge and “real life” while theoretical knowledge was related to the classroom and not to reality. However, some theoretical knowledge gained at school, such as math and English, could be recontextualized and made valuable in the workplaces. To summarize, the students recontextualized knowledge as well as meanings, logics and activities as they were subjected to the academic/ vocational divide in their process of forming a vocational identity.

Between education and migration. Exploring the study-to-work-transition of non-EU master’s students in Denmark
Mette Ginnerskov-Dahlberg
Uppsala Universitet
In the recent years, the univocal celebration of the internationalisation of higher education has been put to a halt and the presence of international students has been increasingly debated. Fears have been raised at the political level that student flows from in particular EU member states undermine Danish welfare when they make use of their Union right to study in Denmark free of charge – only to leave the country shortly after their graduation. This has turned the Danish government’s attention towards retention of students rather than attracting new international talent. In August 2018, it was announced that the number of English-speaking programmes at Danish universities would be reduced significantly in the attempt to ‘restore the balance’ between the outflow and inflow of students (UFM 2018). In spite of the controversy surrounding international students, little research has been conducted on their navigation through the Danish educational system. Beyond the realm of numbers and statistics, we know very little about the factors that inform students’ choices during their study-to-work transition. In this paper, I address this research lacuna by zooming in on the evolving narratives of 20 non-EU master’s students. The European Commission has singled out non-EU countries as key resources for economic development and created a stronger incentive for them to pursue a study in the EU and stay following their graduation. When viewed through a Danish lens, non-EU students constitute a particular attractive group – a prospective highly skilled workforce who, contrary to students from EU member states, are obliged to finance their own education in Denmark. By interviewing the students repeatedly during a longer period – from their arrival to Denmark in 2013 until today – I track the various moments of their paths to, through and out of Danish higher education. My findings suggest that students from in particular developing countries arrive to Denmark with the aspiration of settling down on a more permanent basis. They are unsatisfied with their home countries’ socio-political climate and hope that Denmark will offer a broader range of possibilities to unite their desires with their social realities. Following their graduation, most non-students however find that aspirations of staying are complicated by the national immigration policies and difficulties of securing a job that match their educational qualifications. The majority of the students therefore return to their home countries while others move on to third countries with more lax immigration policies.

En dialogbaserad styrning av högskolan? Struten ur ett retoriskt sociologiskt perspektiv
Rebecka Göransdotter
Uppsala universitet
Under de senaste decennierna har svensk högre utbildning och forskning genomgått betydande förändringar. Det handlar dels om en massiv ökning av studenter och undervisande personal, dels ökade grupper av forskare med externa medel, administratörer och ledning. Frågan om hur dessa statliga, men ändå autonoma, institutioner ska styras har därför blivit en fråga som många anser inte bara berör lärosätena själva, utan även näringslivet och samhället i stort. Kraven på samverkan och lärosätenas roll i relation till arbetsmarknaden både regionalt och nationellt ska också balanseras mot internationella mätningar och behov samtidigt som det livslånga lärandet inte får tappas på vägen. Lärosätenas funktion står på så vis under omförhandling och det vetenskapliga fältet har kommit att ritats om då aktörerna kommit att bli många fler.

Under våren 2017 tillsatte regeringen Styr- och resursutredningen (Strut) och i februari 2019 kom slutligen utredningens betänkande: En långsiktig, samordnad och dialogbaserad styrning av högskolan (SOU 2019:6). Det är uppenbart att detta betänkande engagerat på bred front vilket på många sätt går att koppla till den ökade mängden aktörer på det vetenskapliga fältet. Vi har samlat in och sammanställt ett sjuttiotal remissvar från lärosäten, forskningsinstitut, akademier, myndigheter, stiftelser, fackförbund, näringsliv, ideella organisationer, regioner och kommuner för att söka reda ut vad i utredningen som orsakat flest reaktioner. Genom att kartlägga dessa ställningstaganden vill vi utröna aktörernas syn på universitetets framtida organisation och styrning. Detta kan i förlängningen säga oss någonting om aktörernas syn på universitetets idé och mening.

Studien är tudelad: först vill vi ur ett sociologiskt perspektiv kartlägga det vetenskapliga fältet och aktörernas positioner och relationer med utgångspunkt i de konfliktytor som syns i remissvaren, därefter vill vi på detaljnivå studera de mest särskiljande remissvaren ur ett retoriskt perspektiv för att utröna hur aktörerna använder olika typer av strategier för att göra avtryck och i vissa fall omförhandla fältets spelregler.

I detta tidiga stadium av studien är det ändå tydligt att där aktörernas meningar går isär gäller i första hand hur dessa förändringar och omfördelningar ska gå till i praktiken. Genom att undersöka detta ur ett retoriskt perspektiv går det att finna vilken typ av grundsyn av universitetets roll som ligger till grund för deras argument. På så vis kan aktörernas remissvar bidra till en vidare förståelse av vad som står på spel när styrningen och organisationen av svenska lärosäten omförhandlas.

Särkoppling i världsklass. Studentexpansion och ekonomisk nedmontering av den svenska högskolan 1950–2020
Martin Gustavsson
Andreas Melldahl
Stockholms universitet
Att antalet studenter inom svensk högskola har ökat drastiskt sedan 1950-talet är välkänt. Hur (1) anslagen för undervisningen av det växande antalet studenter har förändrats, och hur (2) detta har påverkat undervisningens organisering, är däremot högst oklart.

Vad gäller den ekonomiska aspekten jämför vi två olika finansieringsmodeller: den s.k. universitetsautomatiken (1958–1974) ställs mot det s.k. produktivitetsavdraget (introducerat 1993). Den förstnämnda principen medförde en årlig uppräkning av anslagen under den första expansionsvågen av högre utbildning under 1960-talet. Det sistnämnda systemet, sjösatt under den andra stora expansionsvågen under 1990-talet, innebär en automatisk nedräkning av anslagen med en viss procent som ska motsvara produktivitetsutvecklingen inom privat tjänstesektor. Vår arbetshypotes är att utbyggnaden av den högre utbildningen i Sverige innebar en gradvis ekonomisk nedrustning, sett till anslagna medel per student. I presentationen undersöker vi närmare under vilka perioder urholkningen av anslagen tar fart och när den varit särdeles framträdande.

De förändrade finansiella förutsättningarna får pedagogiska konsekvenser. Vi belyser hur faktorer som antal lärarledda timmar per student samt institutionernas bruk av olika examinations- och undervisningsformer förändras över tid. Arbetshypotesen är att den ekonomiska nedrustningen tvingar fram en pedagogisk nedrustning, något som över tid förstärker diskrepansen mellan de högt ställda utbildningspolitiska målsättningarna – en högre utbildning i världsklass – och situationen i föreläsningssalarna och seminarierummen.

Undersökningarna av universitetens föränderliga finansiering baseras på uppgifter från statsliggare och offentliga register (om anslag till hela universitetssektorn såväl som till olika universitet) liksom data från universitetsarkiv (om fördelning av medel till olika utbildningsnivåer och ändamål etc.) Undersökningarna av den föränderliga organiseringen av den pedagogiska verksamheten bygger på information från olika institutioner (om lärartäthet, undervisningstid och examinationsformer etc.).

Allting pekar på att 1970-talets strukturkris och högskolereformen 1977 utgör centrala brytpunkter i den svenska finansieringshistorien av universitet. Regleringsteori (om skiftet mellan den ”fordistiska epoken” med välfärdsreformer och den ”post-fordistiska eran” med marknadsreformer) och klassisk resursberoendeteori (om externt tryck på organisationer) är användbara teoretiska redskap för att förklara utvecklingen. Även Baumols dilemma beaktas (om stigande lönekostnader inom sektorer där produktiviteten inte ökar): kan alls det djuplodande läsandet och det vetenskapliga skrivandet rationaliseras utan att verksamheten förändras i grunden?

The digital school
Øyunn Høydal
Handelshøyskolen, OsloMet
The digitalization of the school system is a part of the general digitization of public sector taking place in Western countries. A reform process presented as an apolitical, value-free and technical project in research as well as public debate, despite what some claims to be a clear normative grounding in neoliberal ideology (Cordella and Bonina 2012; Schou and Hjelholt 2018). Biesta (2016) believes the digitalization of the school is characterized by an uncritical technology enthusiasm where one forgets to discuss what kind of school and what kind of learning digitalization should contribute to. According to Biesta the school’s role in society can be viewed from two different perspectives. On the one hand, the school can be seen as a product of modern society, and a response to society’s values and need for specialized competence. From this perspective, the digitization of the school is a response to the needs and challenges of society, as stated in the Norwegian Government’s digitization strategy (Ministry of Education and Research 2017). On the other hand, the school could be seen as a haven, a place where students develop as independent and reflective individuals regardless of society’s instrumental motives and dominant values. From this perspective, it is fundamentally problematic for the school to be digitized to adapt to societal requirements. These perspectives are also interesting regarding the present discussion of public institutions and social investment. That is, the degree to which such institutions should prioritize humans being or becoming (Halvorsen, Geirdal, & Tøge 2017).

According to neo-institutionalism, like discursive institutionalism, ideas have a major role in policy development and the shaping of policy change. Ideas are understood as “…claims about descriptions of the world, causal relationships, or the normative legitimacy of certain actions” (Parsons 2002:48). Ideas are involved in the construction of policy problems and issues, as well as the content of reform and the construction of reform imperatives (Beland 2009). From an ideational perspective, the digitalization of the school system are the result of a policy reflecting certain ideas both about the role and usefulness of digital devices and systems as well as the school and the relationship between the two. The aim of this article is to explore the ideas of the digital school, as expressed in official documents and communication regarding the digitalization of the Norwegian school system.

Pushing the Boundaries of Educational Expectation: Educational aspirations and choices of Swedish first-generation college students
Biörn Ivemark
Örebro Universitet

Over the past ten years, the rate of young people with a university degree in Sweden increased from 40 to 47 percent. Despite a free educational system and generous student aid provisions, students from lower educational backgrounds nevertheless remain more underrepresented in Swedish higher education than they are in most other OECD countries. Although several policy initiatives have sought to change this pattern, it has largely remained static (UKÄ 2019).
While the statistical picture is clear, qualitative studies on this segment of the student population in Sweden are far and in-between.

International research on first-generation college students (henceforth, FGC students) has primarily been conducted in elite universities (e.g. Lehmann 2007; 2009; 2013; Reay, Crozier and Clayton 2009) which likely selects for a very slim portion of FGC student. In fact, prior studies have shown FGC students to be more likely to select colleges and academic programs based on proximity to home and reliable employment prospects rather than on prestige and career considerations (UHR 2017). While some studies have focused on non-elite universities (e.g. Aries & Seider 2005; Horvat & Davis 2010; Reay, Crozier and Clayton 2010) these have primarily focused on students’ experiences in higher education, usually in a comparative context. Much less is known about the trajectories of FGC students towards higher education, and what particular reasons prompted them undertake a university education in the first place. Studying the social dynamics that underlie these decisions is nevertheless of key importance for reducing the socially skewed enrollment in higher education.

This presentation draws on a study of the life histories of 30 first generation students at a mid-sized Swedish university. It explores the subjective experiences that these students have of the process leading to their decision to pursue a higher education. We identify two broad patterns in the respondents we interviewed. One set of FGC students has long seen higher education as a distinct and interesting perspective and enrolls shortly after finishing high school. A second set of students however tends to start higher education at a later age after having worked for several years, often never seeing higher education as a distinct possibility for “people like them”. We explore the key social dynamics that set these students on their distinct trajectories and identify the factors that eventually trigger their decision to apply for college.

We conclude by encouraging further qualitative research on FGC students with turbulent paths to higher education, given their potential receptivity to the efforts of widening participation initiatives. We also underline the need for an increased understanding of perceptions and attitudes related to higher education among individuals from the same family backgrounds who never pursue higher education.

Mobilization of Social Support and High-Level Truancy in Sweden
Gökhan Kaya
Lund University
The aim of this study is to contribute to previous research on the role of social milieu in school on truancy. In Sweden, students may have study allowances withdrawn if they have four hours of unexcused absence from school in a month. According to national statistics from the Swedish Board of Student Finance (CSN), the number of students who lost their school allowance due to high-level truancy has increased in the last three years to around 28,156 (8.6% of all students receiving an allowance). This suggests that economic sanctions are not effective in reducing truancy, and mechanisms that account for the role of social relationships are particularly important.

We know that the significant others (parents, teachers, peers) play a key role in determining truancy. Less is known if students can mobilize these resources so as to reduce truancy. To understand this, we use insights from Lin’s social capital theory and focus on access and mobilization as two separate processes. Some who may be surrounded with supportive relations may end up not being able to benefit from them if, for example, the relations are not based on common expectations, similarity in ethnic and socioeconomic background and mutual respect/trust. This brings us to our initial research questions: does the mobilization of social support from different sources (e.g. parents, teachers, peers) play a major role in reducing truancy? If so, to what extent does it vary among students from different ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds?

We intend to use the Public Health Survey of Schoolchildren, 2016, as our primary data source. The study includes 88 schools for second-year students in upper-secondary education (n=7949) and has a high response rate of 78%. We intend to use multilevel models to separate individual social relations and institutional factors, such as the ethnic composition of the school and academic programs.

Targeting or pushing away pupils with a neuropsychiatric diagnosis. School strategies on the educational market in Stockholm
Emma Laurin
Emil Bertilsson
Uppsala universitet
In the long standing sociological critique of neuropsychiatric diagnoses, such as ADHD, educational systems have been depicted as oppressive agents of state control and medicalization (Singh 2008). While neuropsychiatric diagnoses are still pronounced features in educational settings medicalization is in fact negotiated by numerous actors and market interests (Conrad 2005). Drawing on Bourdieu’s concepts capital, strategy and field (Bourdieu 1996) and Hacking’s theory on transient mental illness (Hacking 2002) this study analyzes the social uses and meaning of ADHD- and ASD-diagnoses, specifically focusing on schools strategies.

The results are based on interviews with 14 principals, 38 parents to children with an ADHD or autism in Stockholm and a statistical correspondence analyzes mapping schools and their resources in relation to each other on what may be labeled as a school field.
The study shows that children with neuropsychiatric diagnoses play an important role in the competition among schools over pupils, resources and reputation on the educational market in Stockholm. Some schools pushed away children with diagnoses perceiving them as a risk for the schools other schools specifically targeted children with neuropsychiatric diagnoses. The result indicates that the schools varying strategies may be understood in relation to the positions they uphold on the school field.

Transdisciplinary Centres in the Swedish Academia Organisation, Academic Careers and Disciplinary Belonging
Ida Lidegran
Jennifer Waddling
Uppsala universitet
At least since the 1990’s there has been great hopes attached to transdisciplinary fields of research. These are seen as essential for advancing science, creating innovation, and links to and collaboration with societal organization including private companies and public authorities. Sweden is no exception. This has for instance been manifested in new organizational units within higher education institutions, where the number of centres, fora, institutes, etcetera has multiplied. These centres can have very different foci, organizational forms, leadership principles, financial structures, content, and differs from one field to the other and from one institution to another.

In our study we focus on four centres of different orientation: Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University Institute for Turkish Studies (SUITS), Institute for Russian and Eurasian Studies (IRES), Uppsala University, and Centre for Gender research at Uppsala University. Our research questions are: Why are interdisciplinary Swedish research centres established? How are they organised in relation to the wider university structure? What role do research centres play in growing ‘disciplines’? In what ways do academics perceive their careers within these centres?

Based on interviews, we discuss our results in relation to three themes: disciplinary journey, interdisciplinary/multidisciplinary working, and stability and structure of the organisation. Regarding the disciplinary journey, early career academics at Stockholm Resilience Centre expressed a ’non-disciplinary identity’ and that interdisciplinary working was vital for careers in sustainability and a vital condition for the ability to ‘communicate’ with other disciplines. At the Centre for Gender Research, the interviewees formulated interdisciplinarity as both beneficial and negative to future careers. On the theme interdisciplinary/multidisciplinary, working at the centres invoked questions of whether to establish links to other institutions, establishing joint seminars or engaging in mostly individual projects and so on. Finally, the theme stability, structure and organisation, was connected to financial conditions, which differed between the centres and revolved around the centres’ relation to the university structure.

The World Class Ordination: Toward a Prosopography of the Global Space of Higher Education Institutions
Pablo Antonio Lillo Cea
Uppsala Universitet

According to statistical data from UNESCO, the number of internationally mobile students in tertiary education has more than doubled over the last two decades, surpassing the five million mark. At the same time, a growing body of literature provides consistent evidence on the rising popularity of the idea of the “World-Class University” in connection to the widespread embracement of global university rankings. Furthermore, the most recent report published by the International Association of Universities indicates that the internationalization of higher education has become a topic of paramount importance for most universities in every corner of the world. The interaction between these events signal the articulation of a space of relations between higher education institutions in a transnational level of unprecedented proportions. Studies focusing on these topics often approach such relations from a nationally or regionally aggregated perspective, which leaves more nuanced questions concerning the positioning of specific institutions as well as the tensions occurring between those positions in the global space that encompasses them unanswered.

Drawing on the sociological framework developed by Pierre Bourdieu and his collaborators for the study of social spaces and social fields, this presentation develops a general overview on the emergence of the global space of higher education institutions to thereafter address the problem of defining what specific institutions out of the thousands existing across the orb are the most relevant structuring agents of such space. A set of criteria to select a sample population of higher education institutions on which to perform a collective biography is therefore proposed and executed.

The three biggest rankings, i.e. the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the QS World University Ranking and the Times Higher Education World University Ranking, are the basis for the first criterion; the proportion of both international students and faculty members are the foundation for the second; membership to the International Association of Universities lays the ground for the third; and international research output makes up the fourth one. The preliminary results of this selection are discussed paying attention to the symbolic order of institutions and nations derived from these factors, reflecting upon the advantages and shortcomings of this exercise. This is a part of an ongoing PhD project which overarching aim is to investigate the current configuration of the global space of higher education institutions, its relationship to the ranking system and the national level.

Framtida EU-byråkrater? College of Europe och internationella studenters utbildningsstrategier
Sara Lindberg
Uppsala Universitet

Europeiska unionen (EU) framställs ofta som komplicerad, byråkratisk och demokratiskt bristfällig i sin institutionella struktur. EU är med andra ord ett politiskt projekt som inte väcker entusiasm bland de europeiska medborgarna. Det kanske mest upplysande exemplet på detta är Storbritanniens omröstning 2016 om att lämna EU. Mot denna bakgrund, var skulle någon någonsin vilja bli en EU-byråkrat? I litteraturen om EU-professionella nämns ofta College of Europe (Michon 2019, 2006; Ban 2013). Det är anmärkningsvärt att en skola, som så ofta är förknippad med EU-institutionerna, är till synes lika okänd för allmänheten och som EU-byråkraterna själva. Varje år anländer cirka 350 unga vuxna från över 50 olika länder till Brygge, Belgien med den tydliga ambitionen att i framtiden vilja arbeta med europeiska frågor. Vilka är deras tidigare studiebanor? Vilka resurser, ärvda och ackumulerade, åberopar, reproducerar och framhäver de under läsåret i Brygge? Gör det möjligt för Europakollegiet att göra det, och i så fall hur? Vill alla studenter verkligen bli EU-byråkrater och i så fall varför? College of Europe är en privat internatskola med en undervisningskostnad på 25 000 euro för ett läsår. Undervisningen sker på franska och engelska. Studentens sammansättning omfattar över 50 nationaliteter och den genomsnittliga studenten har redan en magisterexamen. Denna doktorsavhandling baseras på etnografiskt fältarbete och intervjuer med studenter, administration och lärare. Det utgår från Pierre Bourdieus sociologi och kan placeras in under flera utav sociologins underdiscipliner: elitsociologi, internationalisering av högre utbildning och internationell studentmobilitet. Denna presentation kommer att fokusera på skandinaviska och slaviska studenter vid College of Europe och deras utbildningsstrategier innan och under läsåret samt hur de konstruerar sina framtida karriärer som potentiella EU-byråkrater.

Academic Governance and the Field of Higher Education
Moa Lindqvist
Agnete Vabø
Uppsala universitet
Changing modes of governance in higher education have apparently led to significant changes in relationships and power between different groups: students, academic staff, administrative staff, vice chancellors and external stakeholders. For instance, in Sweden the university boards have gone from a majority of in house-members to a majority of external members following the trend of New Public Management in general.

This paper analyzes changes in governance model in Swedish higher education in relation the positions of the institutions within the overall field of higher education. We have interviewed all types of representatives on the boards of three different universities: a traditional full research university, a modern metropolitan university and young regional university. In these interviews, it is striking that the different types of members on the boards have dissimilar points of views of how a university ought to be organized and managed. There is also distinctively different focus: where teachers tend to emphasis professional dimension of the core activities, research and education, the local leadership steers towards policy issues in relation to the ministry of education and other national authorities, external representatives stress external demands on higher education and research. We can also notice that universities that attract students with larger volume of assets tend to be organized more in collegial ways and dispose boarder members with larger networks. Through our interviews, we have sought to investigate the relations between the university and the working life, the public sector, industry and the private sector to examine whether any of these relationships, more than anyone else, has changed the organization and orientation of the universities.

The Urgency to Do Right: On the Bureaucratic Work of Teachers
Freja Morris
Lunds universitet
According to surveys over the past decade, teachers experience that there has been an increase in the amount and intensity of administrative work tasks. These administrative tasks are in turn frequently interpreted as part of the reason why teachers experience stress in their work life. My research is generally focused on the various ways of doing that relates to teachers’ administrative tasks (which comprises mainly of filling out forms and documents) and in this paper I explore the urgency with which teachers (and other school staff) adhere to bureaucratic practices. Teachers frequently refer to the Swedish notion of ‘hålla ryggen fri’ (apprx. ‘cover all ones bases’ in English) when they explain why they spend much more time on administrative tasks than they think is necessary. I suggest, tentatively, that the fact that bureaucracy presents itself as rational and efficient seems to produce a sense of urgency in its execution. In relation to this, I also explore the role of fear and anxiety that is implicated in the statement ‘att hålla ryggen fri’. These ideas are based on the observations from my ongoing fieldwork among teachers at primary school in Sweden.

Who they were or who they know: Migrant selectivity and social capital as predictors of educational 
Olav Nygård
Linköpings Universitet
Children of immigrants tend to report high educational aspirations. A growing body of research has suggested that these higher-than-expected educational aspirations can be explained by the fact that the current class position of their parents does not correspond to their class position in the country of origin. This underestimates immigrant parents’ class positions in comparison to sedentary parents so that, for example, no difference is made between those that follow their expected social trajectory and those that experience upward or downward mobility. At the same time, there exists another body of research linking the higher-than-expected educational aspirations to (ethnic) social capital. Research in this tradition argues that aspirations are influenced by the social context also outside the family, and that the social context for immigrant families is less structured by class. It also argues that these social contexts set high expectations for children to succeed – to fulfill the dreams of the migrating generation, to counteract expected discrimination, or simply because education is prized higher when coming from a context where it is less accessible.

Many studies on ethnic social capital note that immigrants tend to be positively selected from their country of origin. Despite this, the connection is often left underexplored. In this study, I use Swedish survey data to address this gap by exploring the relation between migrants’ educational selectivity, the extra-familiar social capital of immigrant families, and the educational attainment of their children. The aim is to see if the two lines of research can be combined, and if either makes the other redundant. I use a position generator to measure social capital, and compare parents’ education with the country-of-origin distributions of educational attainment documented in the Barro-Lee data set. The results show that both social capital and education rank relative to the country of origin contribute to explaining educational aspirations. The results also show that parents’ expectations is likely to be the mediating factor for both predictors. This suggests that the two perspectives can be integrated, and stresses that social class contains both material and cultural aspects.

Institutional stratification: Layers of functions and the shaping of the Swedish university system
Gunnar Olofsson
Linnéuniversitetet

The contemporary Swedish university system is an exceedingly complex creature, home to a vast and diverse set of academics, distributed over different teacher categories, performing different tasks at different types of higher education institutions. Each academic is intimately familiar with his immediate surroundings, none with the entire expanse of the system. Studies of the university system can then either chart what the world looks like from the point of view of specific locales in the system, or chart it macroscopically to discover the underlying patterns that structure it socially.

In this paper, we aim to supplement and bridge these two modes of inquiry with a third diachronic one. We argue that the contemporary Swedish university results from a historical process, viz. the successive superimposition of new tasks and layers of functions, which have spawned a matrix of teacher categories, types of HE units, types of educational programs, and types of students. By tracing the history and development of these divisions, we can discern the fault lines along which the system is stratified, and how conditions vary between its different locales.

Going transnational or global? International capital among pupils in the elite segment of upper secondary education in Stockholm
Mikael Palme
Uppsala universitet
In studies on the impact of globalisation on national educational systems, the idea of an emerging international, cosmopolitan or global capital, connected to internationally oriented schools, plays an important role, in particular in elite education. Employing the concepts of symbolic capital and habitus, this study explores the complex relations between investments in national cultural resources and those with an alleged international recognition among students attending schools in the elite segment of upper-secondary education in the city of Stockholm. First, the social structure of upper secondary education in Stockholm is mapped out using simple correspondence analysis of individual-based register data on all students in all schools at this level, making it possible to identify an elite segment. Second, a questionnaire related to the personal trajectory, cultural practices and position-takings, administered to 310 students at 6 schools occupying particular positions in this space is analysed using specific multiple correspondence analysis (MCA). Third, the patterns unveiled by the MCA are further interpreted in the light of 101 interviews with students at the concerned upper secondary schools.

The analysis shows that students and schools competing in this elite school segment uphold different balances between nationally defined cultural capital and investments in supposedly international assets. These balances largely depend on the inherited and acquired capital of the students. At traditional elite schools, transnational symbolic assets integrate into rather than replace nationally defined assets, while the salutary embrace of the values of globalisation is at its strongest among students at schools with a recruitment dominated by economic fractions. Interviews with students on their prospective futures further suggest that the impact of globalization processes on their symbolic investments in studies, knowledge and skills is mediated by the various social fields towards which their trajectories incline.

Orten, industrierna, och framtidens industriarbetare: Vilken betydelse har lokala industrikontexter för ungas yrkessocialisation?
Daniel Persson Thunqvist
Linköpings universitet
Dragkampen mellan lokal fabrikskultur och skolkultur och dess implikationer för ungas fostran till lönearbete är ett klassiskt modernt samhällsdrama. Fabriksarbetets många gånger ogina villkor för mänsklig utveckling – men som trots allt hade en identitetsformerande funktion – stod fram som en motbild till skolans medelklasskultur och meritokratiska löften om en annan möjlig och bättre framtid än industriarbete för arbetsklassens söner, som i Paul Willis bekanta etnografiska studie Learning to Labour (1977; förlag Saxon House, UK). Numera förbereds ungdomar för framtida industriarbeten mestadels genom gymnasial yrkesutbildning som faller under skolans ansvar. Villkoren för ungas socialisation till industriyrken ser annorlunda ut idag. Samtidigt är det inspirerande att som i Paul Willis anda anlägga ett holistiskt perspektiv på den lokala industrikontextens betydelse för yrkessocialisation.

Syftet med presentationen är att bidra med kunskap om hur lokala industrikontexter påverkar förutsättningar för ungas yrkessocialisation. Utgångspunkten är ett historiskt institutionellt perspektiv på styrkeförhållanden och samspel mellan olika aktörer inom utbildning och arbetsliv i kombination med ett situerat perspektiv på yrkeslärande i spänningsfältet mellan industriellt produktionsarbete och utbildning (se nedan). Det innebär att fokusen primärt riktas på relationen och samspelet mellan de industriföretag i lokalsamhället och skolor som är involverade i yrkesutbildning.

De lokala industrikontexter det rör sig om utgör en medelstor industristad och tre mindre industriorter i en industrität Mellansvensk region. Industristrukturen ser olika ut på orterna. Gemensamt är att industriellt arbete historiskt har satt sin prägel på orterna. Industrierna och industriföretagen är viktiga för sysselsättning och välfärd. De representerar kontinuitet. Unga som söker sig mot industriyrken följer inte sällan tidigare generationers fotspår. Men industrilandskapen genomgår också förändringar som på många andra håll. Prognoser om att framtidens industriarbete blir mer högteknologiskt, digitaliserat och automatiserat än det redan är ökar kraven på formell utbildning också på eftergymnasial nivå. Att industriyrken är differentierade och fortfarande ofta har sin grund i ett sofistikerat hantverkskunnande kan bidra till spänningar mellan framtida prognoser och vad industriföretag efterfrågar lokalt idag. Hur ett närmande mellan skolans institutioner och industrierna kan ske – ideologiskt, organisatoriskt, materiellt – har fått förnyad aktualitet gällande brist på yrkesutbildad arbetskraft parallellt med ungdomsarbetslöshet. Överhängande risker i den globala konkurrensens spår med företagsnedläggningar som kan drabba hela orten är också incitament för nya regionala och lokala samverkansformer mellan industriföretag och skolor.

Presentationen baseras på en pågående studie av samverkan mellan industriföretag och gymnasieskolans industritekniska program på fyra orter. Intervjuer genomförs med företrädare för både större och mindre industriföretag samt yrkesprogrammens utbildningsledare. Studien bygger vidare på ett treårigt forskningsprojekt om yrkeselevers lärande och formande av en yrkesidentitet inom industritekniska programmet. Vi (Maria Gustavsson, Lisa Ferm, Daniel Persson Thunqvist) har följt 44 elever under deras treåriga yrkesutbildning med särskild fokus på arbetsplatsförlagt lärande i samma kommuner som är föremål för uppföljande studier.

Utifrån elevperspektivet kan vi konstatera att det knappast är någon ensartad bild av modernt industriarbete som framträder. Förutsättningarna för elevernas lärande på arbetsplatser varierar mellan och inom olika industribranscher och orter. Industriföretagens storlek, deras globala räckvidd, produktionsvillkor, arbetsorganisation inklusive vanan att utbilda unga människor, och andra karakteristika, spelar också en betydelsefull roll. Elever uppfattar återkommande skolan respektive industrins arbetsplatser som separata kulturer, med skilda normer och spelregler. Materiella skillnader spelar också in, exempelvis kontrasten mellan industriers högteknologiska arbetsplatser mot skolans verkstäder med daterade maskiner. Preliminära slutsatser av uppföljande intervjuer, sammantaget med elevintervjuerna, är att orten och den lokalt förankrade industrikontexten har stor betydelse för yrkesutbildningar beträffande utbildningsutbud, inriktningar, attraktionskraft, men också gällande elevers yrkesval och övergångar mellan skola och arbetsliv.

Den digitala medborgarens genealogi: en historia om folkbildningsförhoppningar
Lina Rahm
Linköpings universitet
Idag diskuteras digital kompetens som någonting nödvändigt för att delta i samhället. Fenomenet är inte nytt—och inte heller specifikt för just digitala media teknologier—olika medier har vid olika tider i historien fört med sig radikalt skilda kunskapsbehov. Med varje ny medial epok följer diskussioner om både ökade möjligheter och växande faror, men också behovet av nya kunskaper. Såväl televisionen som radion och boktryckarkonsten har ansetts kräva genomgripande nya förmågor av medborgarna. Datorns föreställda utopiska potential skiljer sig emellertid från, till exempel radion, bilen eller kärnkraften, eftersom drömmen om det digitala inte har minskat utan snarare ökat. Därför blir det viktigt att fråga oss vad det är för (nya) kunskaper som ryms i begreppet digitala kompetenser. En viktig utgångspunkt idag är ju till exempel att vi anses behöva just digitala kompetenser. Det är med andra ord vi som ska behärska det digitala (så att det digitala inte behärskar oss). Vi anses också behöva digitala kompetenser för att vara del i det ”digitala innanförskapet” som i allt högre grad också innefattar ett samhälleligt innanförskap.

Diskussioner kring utbildning i och om digital teknik hänger förstås samman med vad den specifika tekniken vid en viss tid kan, eller inte kan, göra. Men kanske ännu högre utsträckning och särskilt i relation till utbildning, handlar den om vad en fiktiv föreställd framtida teknik kan, eller inte kan, och vad denna framtidsbild i sin tur genererar för beskrivningar av hot och möjligheter. Utbildning är ett av de främsta verktygen staten förfogar över för att skapa önskad framtid. Vilken framtid som ska skapas hänger nära samman med hur man tänker sig den tekniska utvecklingen. Datorer handlar således om mycket mer än kiselplattor, minnen och algoritmer—de handlar också i hög grad om samhället och hur dess medborgare ska organiseras och styras. Därför behöver vi undersöka hur vi pratar, och har pratat, om utbildning i relation till den tekniska utvecklingen—vilka idéer eller föreställningar om framtiden som ligger bakom de olika, ofta tidsförankrade, beskrivningarna digital teknik, och inte minst, vilka utbildningssatsningar som följt i dess spår.

Denna studie använder sig av ett genealogiskt tillvägagångssätt för att kartlägga och förklara hur och varför datorer och medborgarskap har kommit att bli så tätt sammankopplade och vilken funktion folkbildning (det vill säga icke-formell och statligt subventionerad vuxenutbildning i form av exempelvis informationskampanjer, studiecirklar och massupplysningsprojekt) har och har haft i denna relation. Studien undersöker historiska kontinuiteter och avbrott i perioden från 1950-talet till 2010-talet. Genom att bygga vidare på tidigare forskning i överlappningen mellan svensk folkbildningshistoria och historisk datapolitik bidrar studien med kunskap om hur folkbildning, och föreställningar om folkbildning, fungerat som en historisk och nutida universallösning, dels för att söka förekomma förutsedda problem med datorisering, men också för att realisera samhälleliga förhoppningar förknippade med den samma.

Studiens bidrag är dubbelt: 1) Empiriskt lyfter dem fram arkiverade och, på många sätt, bortglömda diskurser och folkbildningssatsningar kring datorisering och medborgarskap, samt påvisar dessas relevans för nutida föreställningar om den digitala medborgaren. 2) Teoretisk föreslår den en konceptuell modell över framtidsföreställningar kring utbildning, samt introducerar specifikt begreppet (och metoden) ’problematisering’ i dessa föreställningar.

Kompetenser, socialisation och subjektifiering i elevers resor till Bosnien-Hercegovina
Emmy Ring
Göteborgs universitet
I Sverige förekommer olika sorters internationellt arbete på skolor; studiebesök, solidaritets- och biståndsprojekt, nätprojekt och utbytesresor. Utbytesresor innebär oftast att elever åker till ett annat land och blir gäst i en elevs hem och även tar emot en annan elev som gäst i sitt eget hem, andra sorters resor kan vara utformade som studiebesök. En vanlig resa för elever i Sverige idag är resor till Förintelsens minnesplatser.

Givetvis finns förväntningar på att elever och lärare ska utvecklas på ett eller annat sätt efter ett internationellt utbyte. Motiv som lärare uppger till utbyten är att eleverna ska få vidga sin omvärldsuppfattning, utveckla empati och solidaritet och förbereda elever för att leva i ett internationaliserat samhälle (Brodow 2003). Det upplevda syftet hos lärarna med att resa till Förintelsens minnesplatser är att tydliggöra människors lika värde, målet ska inverka positivt på sam- och framtiden och medvetandegöra eleverna om existentiella och moraliska dimensioner. Resandet innebär en ny miljö för eleverna som kan användas för att möjliggöra individuell utveckling. I det socialpedagogiska perspektivet är målet att ge eleverna möjlighet till identitetsförändring, snarare än kunskapsöverföring (Flennegård 2018).
Utbytesprojekt handlar till stor del om elevernas självbild (Brodow 2003). Eleverna i ett utbytesprojekt utvecklade sina självbilder genom ta del av berättelser av andra unga utanför Sverige och genom att eleverna fick erfarenheter tillsammans med andra (Henning Loeb 2018). Peréz- Karlsson menar att vistelsen i ett annat land bidrar till att deltagarna utvecklar självförtroende, personlig utveckling och en känsla av att vara kvalificerad, kapabel och empowered. Utlandsvistelser kan ge fördelar för samhället då dessa ökar förståelse för deltagarna själva men även för andra (Peréz – Karlsson 2014).

I studien som presenteras här undersöker jag en högstadiegrupp och en gymnasiegrupp som vid olika tillfällen reser till Bosnien – Hercegovina med sina lärare. Syftet med studien är att undersöka vilken sorts socialisation, subjektifiering och möjliga kompetenser som möjliggörs i reseprojekten. I B-H bor högstadiegruppen hemma hos bosniska familjer medan gymnasiegruppen bor på vandrarhem. Eleverna får besöka Srebrenica, platsen där ca 8000 män och pojkar avrättades under ett fåtal dagar, Sarajevo som belägrades under kriget och gymnasieeleverna besökte även Mostar som också drabbades av strider mellan folkgrupper. Högstadieeleverna deltar i aktiviteter och besök som de bosniska elevernas lärare planerat och gymnasieeleverna följer program som deras svenska lärare planerat.

Insamlat data/material: anteckningar från deltagande observation, intervjuer med elever och lärare och elevsvar på enkäter efter resan. Materialet visar att resorna erbjuder eleverna att få syn på sin egen livssituation och förutsättningar genom att jämföra Sverige med det krigsdrabbade Bosnien Hercegovina. Genom sina erfarenheter av platser och händelser i det krigsdrabbade landet, skolan och mötet med värdfamiljernas hem, de nya vännerna och ögonvittnen ges eleverna möjligheter att göra jämförelser och reflektera över normer och värderingar i det svenska samhället och hos dem själva men också över sin egen livssituation. Genom att reflektera över likheter och skillnader mellan Bosnien och Sverige får eleverna möjlighet att se sig själva. De ser sig själva som boende i en mindre stad med liten kriminalitet men även som medborgare i ett rikt land med en fungerande skola och välfärd. Eleverna har en medvetenhet om hur deras livssituation påverkar deras förväntningar och syn på hur exempelvis en storstad ska vara, de kan förstå att de utgår från deras måttstock på rikedom och välstånd när de jämför mellan Bosnien och Sverige. Genom att jämföra bosniska förhållanden med de svenska drar eleverna slutsatsen att de själva lever i ett land med resurser och fred och att de uppskattar sin egen livssituation.

Nyanlända gymnasieungdomars möte med den svenska skolan
Hassan Sharif
Uppsala universitet
Numera är det allmänt känt att kategorin nyanlända elever i den svenska skolan kommer från olika länder och lever under skilda socioekonomiska villkor, med varierande omfattning och former av kapitaltillgångar. De har också med sig en variation av språkliga kompetenser, kulturella vanor när de börjar i den svenska skolan. Nyanlända elever har dock det gemensamt att de saknar erfarenheter av det svenska utbildningssystemet och inte heller kan svenska när de anländer till Sverige. Det är dessa brister som definierar dem som grupp i mötet med den svenska skolan. Samtidigt är det flera andra saker som skiljer eleverna åt men som inte verkar vara relevanta i skolans arbete som sällan uppmärksammar deras heterogena bakgrunder. Eleverna har till exempel med sig såväl olika skolkunskaper som olika språkliga kompetenser. De kommer också från olika länder och regioner, har vuxit upp under olikartade socioekonomiska förhållan¬den och har olika nationella, etniska och religiösa tillhörigheter. Eleverna kommer till Sverige på grund av en rad olika orsaker och omständigheter. De kan vara ensamkommande barn och ungdomar, barn till arbetskraftsinvandrare, flyktingar, EU-medborgare eller kommer hit genom anhöriginvandring.

Presentationen handlar om en grupp gymnasieungdomar i åldern 17-19 från Irak och deras möte med gymnasieskolans introduktionsprogram Språkintroduktion (tidigare IVIK). Vad händer i mötet? Hurdan är utbildningen? Hur förhåller sig de unga nyanlända till den? Vad gör de egentligen under utbildningstiden? Och vilken roll spelar deras tidigare erfarenheter av det irakiska samhället och dess utbildningssystem? Studien är etnografisk och bygger främst på deltagande observationer och intervjuer. Ungdomarnas möte med det svenska samhället och skolans introduktionsutbildning analyseras med hjälp av begrepp som utbildningskapital, språkligt kapital, habitus och strategier, hämtade från den franske sociologen Pierre Bourdieu.

Nyckelord: utbildningssociologi, migration, integration, nyanlända, gymnasiet

The Rise of the ‘International Preschool’ in Sweden: Nationwide Distribution and Family Enrolment Patterns
Jennifer Waddling
Uppsala universitet

With the acceleration of globalisation, the growth of skilled employment migration, and the continuing domination of the English language, it is no surprise that national educational options have become increasingly ‘internationally focused’, with English language provision taking a central role. These international options, which have traditionally been infrastructure for mobile families, are becoming all the more popular for local families. In Sweden, the number of international upper-secondary programmes on offer has risen, as has the number of compulsory schools with international profiles (e.g. Engelska skolan, Futuraskolan). Even for the youngest children there is a growing tendency towards international education options; internationally profiled preschools, typically bilingual English and Swedish, are establishing themselves in growing numbers in the country’s local education markets.

The first part of this study maps out the geographic locations of these preschools on a national level, evidencing that they are not a countrywide phenomenon. Therefore, the distribution of these preschools provides different opportunities for families to acquire or legitimate international assets, depending on where they live. This distribution is further analysed in relation to demographic statistics.
The second part of this study questions who attends these preschools. To investigate the enrolment patterns to these preschools, individual register data from Statistics Sweden (SCB) is employed, which concerns all children enrolled in preschool between 2014-2017, and their parents. Using this data, the study analyses who is attending these preschools (characterised by the parents’ profession, income, education and country of origin). Enrolment patterns are examined on a local level, comparing international and non-international preschools in the same area. By statistically examining the enrolment to these preschools, this study analyses whether they can be claimed to be the result of actual migration, i.e. attended by immigrant groups (of different categories), or whether they are attended predominantly by Swedish families (of particular social groups). This study contributes to the discussion of to what degree different international education options are sites for the legitimisation of pre-acquired international assets, or are a tool for the acquisition of international assets for those families wishing to endow them on their children.